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The Grocer's Encyclopedia by Artemas Ward (1911)

Adulteration
Adulteration. The Grocer Is Never An Advocate Of Adulteration. Some Manu Facturers Adulterate For The Sake Of Profit, But Even Then They Are Generally Driven To It Unwil Lingly By The Demand For Cheap Goods. A Fair Price Is Necessary To Secure Pure Goods. The Cry Of Adulteration Goes To ...

Alcohol
Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol (also Called Grain Alcohol, Root Alcohol, Spirits Of Wine, Etc., According To The Source) : Occurs As The Result Of The Fermentation—i. E.. The Effect Of The Growth Of Yeast Cells, Either Wild Or Cultivated (see Yeast ) —of Liquid Containing A Moderate Amount Of Any One ...

Almonds
Almonds: Rated Commercially Among The Most Valuable Nuts, Are The Kernels Of The Fruit Of A Tree, Which Is Said To Be A Native Of The East And Of Africa But Which Long Ago Became Fully Naturalized Throughout The Whole South Of Europe And Is, Now Grown With Equal Facility ...

American Wines
American Wines. American Wine Makers Have Duplicated Nearly All The Euro Pean Wines In Popular Demand. In Some The Results Are Disappointing To The Con Noisseur Because Probably Of Differences In Climate And Soil, As Well As In Handling, But In Others A High Measure Of Success Has Been Attained—especially ...

Apples
Apples. This Well-known Fruit Has Been Much Improved By Cultivation From Its Original Wild Which Is Still Seen In The Crab Apple—a Small, Acid, Almost Uneat Able Fruit, And Yet The Parent Of The 1,500 Varieties Now Used In So Many Ways—for Eat Ing Raw, In Cooking And Preserving, For ...

Arrow Root
Arrow-root: A Starch Obtained From The Root Of A West Indian Plant, Largely Cultivated In All Tropical Countries. Its Name Is Said To Have Been Obtained From The Fact That The Indians Used The Fresh Roots To Cure The Wounds Made By Poisoned Arrows. More Probably It Is Derived From ...

Asparagus
Asparagus: A Native Of Europe, Which Was A Favorite Vegetable Of The Ancient Romans. In This Country, Only The "spears" Are Eaten But In Other Parts Of The World The Seeds Have Been Largely Used For Coffee—they Are Still Recommended For That Pur Pose In Some Parts Of Europe—and A ...

Bacon
Bacon: Is The Cured And Smoked Meat Of The Breast-pieces, Sides And Belly Of The Pig, The Breast-pieces Being Generally Employed For Choice "breakfast Bacon." In Buying, One Should Look For Thin Rind And Fairly Even Streaking Of Tender Red Lean And Firm White Fat. That With Yellow Fat Should ...

Bacteria
Bacteria: The Family Name Which Includes A Great Many Of The Smallest Varieties Of Micro-organisms Or "microbes"—minute Vegetable Growths. They Are Found In Three Chief Forms—round, Rod-shaped And Spiral—but As A Class They Are Dis Tinguished By Their Reproduction By Fission—the Full Grown Bacterium, Except In A Few Cases, Multiplying ...

Baking Powder
Baking Powder: A Compound Used In Place Of Yeast, In Which An Acid Acting Upon An Alkali Generates Carbon-dioxide (carbonic Acid Gas). As This Action Takes Place As Soon As The Powder Is Moistened, The Dough Is Made Ready For Baking More Promptly Than When Yeast Is Used. Practically All ...

Bananas
Bananas. The Banana, The Most Prolific Fruit Plant Known, Is A Native Of, The East Indies But Is Now Cultivated In All Tropical Countries. It Is Palm-like In Appearance, But Is In Fact A Large "plant," The Thick, Soft Stem Being Formed By The Overlapping Of The Long Vertical Leaf-stalks. ...

Barley
Barley (see Color Page Opposite 526) : A Grain Grown In Nearly Every Part Of The World, Which Has Apparently Been Cultivated From The Most Remote Antiquity. The Books Of Moses And The Early Greek And Roman Writers Make Many References To It. The Greeks Are Said To Have Trained ...

Barter
Barter: Dealing By An Exchange Of Goods. This Was The Original Mode Of Dealing Before The Use Of Money And Is Still Very Common Wherever Money And Banking Facil Ities Are Scarce. The Country Dealer Is Often Obliged To Take Eggs, Butter, Etc., As Pay For Sugar, Starch And Soap, ...

Bean
Bean: A Vegetable Which Appears To Have Been Cultivated Long Before The Coin Mencemfent Of Recorded History And In One Variety Or Another To Flourish In Every Part Of The World. It Was Well Known To The Ancient Egyptains And Grecians—and When The First Voyagers Reached The Western Continent They ...

Beef
Beef: Is The Most Important Of Meats, The Chief Staple Of The Butcher And The Lead Ing Food Article In The Average Household. It Is A Curious And In Some Respects An Unfortunate Fact That In Different Parts Of The Country There Are Many Names For The Same "cut," But ...

Beer
Beer. The Word "beer" As Now Used Applies To All Undistilled Fermented Malt Liquors Excepting Those Which Travel Under The Special Classifications Of Ale And Porter Or Stout. Its Principal Constituents Are Prepared Barley, Called "malt" (which See) And Hops With Corn Or Rice, Or Both, Added In Varying Proportions. ...

Biscuits Or
Biscuits Or Crackers: Are Made Nowadays In Great Variety And, In The Majority Of Cases, Of Uniform Excellence Of Flavor And Ingredients. The Result Of The Improvement In The Domestic Product During The Last Few Years Has Been A Noteworthy Increase In Consumption. The American Appetite For Biscuits Is, However, ...

Borax
Borax: One Of The Most Useful Of Chemicals. The World's Supply Formerly Came From Asia, Principally Thibet And Persia, But The United States Now Furnishes A Consider Able Share Of It, The Largest Deposits Being Those Discovered In The Middle And Latter Part Of The Last Century In California And ...

Bordeaux
Bordeaux Wines—white: A Majority Of The White Bordeaux Wines Exported Are Produced In The Celebrated Graves Section Of The Department Of The Gironde. The Cheapest Grades Are Generally Marketed Here As Barsac, Bommes And Graves; The Next Higher As Sauternes, Haut Sauternes And Haut Barsac. The Term "haut" In This ...

Brandy
Brandy: A Liquor Obtained By The Distillation Of The Fermented Juice Of Fruits. When The Word Is Employed Without Any Qualifying Prefix, It Is Nearly Always Understood As The Liquor Distilled From Wine, I. E., The Fermented Juice Of Grapes. Other Brandies Generally Carry The Explanations Of Their Source—as "cherry ...

Bread
Bread. It Is Generally Conceded Nowadays That The Egyptians Were The First To Use Leaven In The Making Of Bread, Though Some Historians Give The Credit To The Chinese. From Egypt, The Custom Traveled To Greece And, Later On, The Greeks Communicated The Process To The Romans, Who Spread The ...

Butter
Butter: As A Food Dates Back To The Time Of The Ancient Jews, But By The Greeks And Romans It Was Used Only As An Ointment And Even Now It Is Largely Sold For That Pur Pose By Apothecaries In The Countries Bordering On The Mediterranean. The Greater Part Of ...

Buttermilk
Buttermilk: The Liquid Which Remains After The Separation Of Butter From Cream. It Is Generally A By-product Of Butter Manufacture. When Produced Under Sanitary Conditions And Drunk Fresh, It Is Not Only Exceedingly Agreeable To Many Palates, But Is Very Nutritious, As It Contains All The Cream Nutrients Excepting The ...

Camembert
-- Camembert : A Soft, Rich Cheese, Made In The Former Province Of Normandy, France, The Best Now Coming From The Districts Of Orne And Calvados. It Is Generally Put Up In Round Wooden Boxes Or Tins And Is Marketed In May And November. It Is Made From Two Separate ...

Candles
Candles: Are Now Generally Made By Molding In Metal Forms, Though Some Grades, Notably Church Candles, Are Still Made By The Dipping Process. The Materials Chiefly Employed Are Stearin, Paraffin And Beeswax, Separate And In Various Combinations And Compositions. For Decorative Purposes They Are Frequently Colored With Aniline Dyes. Tallow ...

Candy U S
Candy. U. S. "standard" Candy Is Defined As A Product Prepared From A Saccharine Substance Or Substances, With Or Without The Addition Of Harmless Coloring, Flavoring Or Filling Materials, Containing No Terra Alba, Barytes, Talc, Chrome Yellow Or Other Mineral Substances Or Poisonous Colors Or Flavors Or Other Injurious Ingredients. ...

Canned Goods
Canned Goods. The Preservation Of Foods By Sterilization And Hermetical Seal Ing Is Not A New Process, But Its Present Importance As An Industry Is Of Compara Tively Recent Origin. The List Of Articles Which Are Preserved By Canning Is A Long One, And Includes A Great Variety Of Fish, ...

Catalog Of Wines Of
Catalog Of Wines Of All Nations. The Alphabetical List Commencing At The Foot Of This Page And Concluded On Page 704, Embraces All Wines Commercially Familiar To The Trade In This Country And Enumer Ates Their Chief Characteristics. Those Distinguished By An Asterisk (*) Are Further Described Under The Headings ...

Caviar
Caviar: The Salted Roe Of Various Large Fish Of The Sturgeon Family. Nearly All The World's Supply Now Comes From The Caspian Sea. The Finest Quality Caviar Is That From The Beluga, A Russian Word Meaning "great White Sturgeon," The Largest Of All Sturgeons, Which Grows To A Length Of ...

Celery
Celery: As We Know It, Is The Cultivated Variety Of A Plant Of The Parsley Family, Which Is Found Wild In Many Parts Of Both This Country And Europe. It Is Grown In Large Quantities In Divers Latitudes—new York, Michigan, Ohio, Florida, California And Bermuda Being The Largest Producers. It ...

Cereals
Cereals. Agriculturally Speaking, The Term "cereals" Refers To All Species Of "grasses" Which Bear Grain, The Most Important Being Wheat, Corn, Rye, Oats, Rice And Barley. The World's Huge Crop Of Wheat, For Example, Comes Under This Classification. From The Standpoint Of The Grocer And The Average Consumer Though, The ...

Ceylon Teas
Ceylon Teas. The Ordinary Grades Of Ceylon Tea Are Largely Marketed In This Country As "cey Lon Tea" Of First Quality, Second Quality, Etc. A Fuller Division Is Into The Following Principal Varieties, Each Subject To Sub Division Into Several Grades : Broken Orange Pekoe, Or "flowery Pekoe," The Very ...

Champagne
Champagne. Contrary To General Impression, Champagne Is Made From Fine Vari Eties Of Black And Red Grapes. Its "white" Color Is Due To The Fact That The Grapes Are Pressed Before The Skins Have Had A Chance To Color The Juice. The Grapes Are Sorted Immediately After Gathering And Taken ...

Cheese
Cheese: The Product Obtained By Coagulat Ing The Casein Of Milk By Means Of Rennet Or Acids, With Or Without The Addition Of Ripening Ferments And Seasonings. The Casein Is Usually Coagulated With Rennet, The Curd Being Then Separated From The Whey And Pressed In Suitable Molds. By Act Of ...

Cherry
Cherry: A Fruit Which Is Believed To Have Originated In Persia. In This Country, It Is Most Popular Raw, Canned And Otherwise Preserved, And Put Up In Liqueurs (as Cherries In Maraschino And Brandied Cherries). It Is Also Stoned And Dried, Becoming Then The "pitted" Cherry Of Commerce And Is ...

Chestnut
Chestnut (see Color Page Ii Of Nuts) : The Fruit Of A Tree Which Is Found In Sev Eral Varieties In Different Parts Of The World. The Name Is Derived From That Of The Town Of Kastana In Asia Minor, Which Is Also More Or Less Closely Preserved In Several ...

Chewing Gum
Chewing Gum. The Original "chewing Gum" Was Spruce Gum, The Exudation Of The Cut Branches Of The Spruce Or Fir Tree. Later, Pure White Paraffin Wax, Variously Flavored, Took Its Place—but Only In Its Turn To Give Way To The "chicle" Now Almost Exclusively Employed. Chicle Is A Gum Which ...

Chicken
Chicken. The Word "chicken" Formerly Meant "young Fowl," But Usage Has Applied It To Fowls Of All Ages, The Young Birds Being Designated As "spring Chickens," "broilers," Etc. The Fowl Has Been Reared For Food For So Many Centuries That Its First Conversion From Its Wild Ancestors Is Lost In ...

Chicory
Chicory. There Are Two Main Varieties Of The Chicory Family Under General Culti Vation—cichorium Intybus, Native To Europe And Cichorium Endivia (see Endive), Native, To The East Indies. "cichorium Intybus" Is Broadly Divided Into "large-rooted Chicory," Of Which The Two Best Known Types Are The Brunswick And Magdeburg, And "common ...

Cider
Cider: Is The Juice Of Apples, Both Fermented And Unfermented. "sweet Cider" May Be Either Unfermented Or With Fermentation Checked At An Early Stage So As To Leave Unchanged A Considerable Amount Of The Sugar In The Juice. "hard Cider" Is That In Which Fermentation Has Continued Until All The ...

Cigars
Cigars. A Cigar Department, If Properly Managed, Generally Pays Good Profits To The Grocer. Tobacco In Every Form Has Always Been Sold By Grocers In The Smaller Towns—and There Is No Good Reason Why Cigars At All Events Should Not Take Their Place Among Other Staples In The Larger Cities ...

Cinnamon
Cinnamon (see Color Page Of Spices) : Is The Spicy Bark Of Young Branches Of The Cinnamon Tree, Cut Off In Strips And Dried In The Sun, Curling During The Process Into The Quills With Which The Consumer Is Familiar. Ceylon Cinnamon Is Obtained From Cinnamornum Zeglanicam, Native To Ceylon ...

Claret
Claret. What We Call "claret" Is Known In France As Vin De Bordcaux,"(red) Bor Deaux Wine," Sub-divided By The Names Of Cantons Or Communes. As "st. Julien," Etc. The Term "claret," An Anglo-saxon Name Originally Applied Only To Red Bordeaux Wines, Is A Corruption Of .clairct, A French Word Applied ...

Claret_2
Claret.* " Desmirail " Dillon. 1—claret. 2—white Bordeaux. " Doisy. White Bordeaux (second Growth). " Ducasse-grand-puy " Ducru Beaucaillou Claret.* " Duhart Milon " Duluc. Claret. " Dupre-fourcas. Claret. " Durfort Vivent. " Ferriere. Claret.* " Filhot. White Bordeaux (second Growth). " Flandres. Claret. " Fleurennes. Claret. " Fongravey Bethmann. ...

Claret_3
Claret.* Rauzan Segla Rieussec. White It Rochet. " Romer. White Bordeaux ( Second Growth). St. Bris. White Bordeaux. St. Exupery. Claret. St. Georges. Claret. St. Pierre. Claret.* Gg Salins. White, Alsace-lorraine. Sauau. White Bordeaux (second Growth). C, Suduiraut. White Talbot. Claret.* De Tastes. White Bordeaux. Du Tertre. Tivoli. Claret. Les ...

Cloves
Cloves (see \illustration In Color Page Of Spices). Cloves, Widely Used For Flavor Ing Desserts And Confectionery And Medicinally, Are The Dried Flower Buds Of The Clove Tree. As Plucked, They Are Reddish In Color, But This Changes To The Familiar Dark Brown In The Process Of Drying, Performed Either ...

Cockroach
Cockroach: An Orthopterous Insect Which May Be Classed Among The Most Sive And Objectionable Of Domestic Pests. It Is Extremely Voracious, Not Only Ing All Kinds Of Provisions, But Destroying Silk, Flannel And Even Cotton Fabrics In The Absence Of Anything More Edible. It Is Nocturnal In Its Habits And ...

Cocoa And Chocolate
Cocoa And Chocolate. The Word "cocoa," Now Universally Used In English-speaking Countries, Is A Corruption Of "cacao"—the Full Botanical Title Being "theobroma Cacao," Which, Translated, Is "cocoa, The Food Of The Gods," Clearly Demonstrating The Early Recognition Of Its High Food Value! Cocoa Beans Were Used As Food In Mexico, ...

Cocoanut
Cocoanut. The Cocoanut Palm Is A Native Of The Islands Which Dot The Southern Pacific, But It Is Now Widely Grown In Many Other Tropical Parts Of The Globe, Particularly In The West In Dies, Ceylon And Parts Of India. It Flourishes Best In The Sandy Soil Along The Sea-shore ...

Coffee
Coffee. The Civilized World Is Indebted To Africa For The Coffee Bean. Its Name Is Variously Attributed To That Of The Abyssinian Province Of Catfa And The Arabian Word K'hatvah. Its Early History Is Clouded In Tradition, But It Appears To Have Been Known By The Ethiopians Of Northern Africa ...

Color
Color And Coloring Matter. A Great Improvement Has Been Made During The Last Few Years In The Class Of Coloring Matters Employed In The Preparation Of Foods, Candies, Etc. The Use Of Unwholesome Chemicals Has Been Practically Eliminated And There Is No Longer Any Reason Why The Consumer Should Look ...

Condensed Or Evaporated Milk
Condensed Or Evaporated Milk. The Invention Of The Process Of Ing Milk Is Generally Attributed To Gail Borden In 1856, But Some Authorities Assert That It Was Invented In Switzerland. In View Of The Enormous Present Dimensions Of The Industry, It Is Interesting To Note That The Patent Office Examiners ...

Cookery
Cookery. The Fundamental Principles Of Cookery May For General Consideration Be Divided As Following Under The Headings Of Par-boiling, Boiling, Steaming, Stewing, Roasting And Baking, Broiling, Frying And Sauter. Tion, And The Food Should Always Be Kept Covered With Water—if More Water Is Required To Take The Place Of That ...

Cork
Cork: Is The Outer Layer Of The Bark Of A Species Of Oak Tree Which Grows In Southern Europe And Along The North African Coast. It Is Principally Cultivated In Spain And Portugal, Those Two Countries Furnish Ing The Greater Part Of The World's Supply. The First Stripping Is Taken ...

Corn
Corn. The Title "corn" Is Used In A General Way To Designate All The Principal Grains —wheat, Rye, Etc.—but As Particularly Applied In This Country It Refers To "indian Corn" Or "maize"—the Most Beautiful And Luxuriant Of All Grain "grasses," Resembling Rather The Sugar Cane Of The Tropics Than Other ...

Cottonseed
Cottonseed, Flour, Meal, Oil. Cottonseed Comes From The Gin With Short Soft Lint Still Adhering To The Shells. Its General Commercial Treatment Produces From Each Hundred Pounds, About 46 Pounds Of Lint And Shells, 36 Pounds Of Oil Cake Or "cake" And 16 Pounds Of Crude Oil. The Lint Is ...

Crabs
Crabs: The Most Popular Of All Crustaceans. They Are Found In Great Variety, Some Existing Entirely In The Sea, Others In Shallow Water, Both Fresh And Salt, And Yet Others On Land. They Multiply Rapidly And Are In Season All The Year. At The Mouth Of The Chesapeake, The Beach ...

Cranberry
Cranberry: A Small Acid Fruit, Growing In Boggy And Marshy Ground, Largely Used For Making Tarts, Sauces, Jelly, Etc. Four Varieties Are Generally Recognized—the Cherry, The Olive, The Bugle And The Bell, Their Titles Being More Or Less De Scriptive Of Their Shape. The Berries Were First Cultivated At Cape ...

Dates
Dates. In Persia, Arabia And Northern Africa, The Date Palm Forms One Of The Prin Cipal Sources Of Natural Wealth. The Wood And Leaves Are Used In Every Imaginable Way, Just As Natives In Other Parts Of The World Use The Cocoanut, And The Fruit, Fresh Or Dried, Frequently Serves ...

Distillation
Distillation: Is, In Its Fundamental Features, The Vaporizing Of A Liquid By Heat In One Vessel And Then Conducting The Vapor Or Steam Into Another Cool Vessel, Where It Is Condensed Into A Liquid. The Value Of The Process Is Found In The Fact That Very Few Liquids Become Vapor ...

Dried And Evaporated Fruit
Dried And Evaporated Fruit. The Great Industry Of Drying And Evapo Rating Has Made A Diet Of Domestic Fruit Possible The Year Round Irrespective Of Cli Mate And Season. It Is Also Possible To Sell The Product At Prices Within The Reach Of All Classes Of People, Because Of The ...

Ducks
Ducks. There Are Twelve "standard" Varieties Of Domestic Ducks Raised In This Country, But The Most Popular And Abundant Is The White Pekin. First Imported From China About 1872. It Is A Large Bird, A Pair Often Reaching A Total Weight Of Twenty Pounds, Of Delicate Flesh And An Excellent ...

Edam
Edam : A Highly Salted, Red, Round Cannonball Cheese, Made In Edam, Holland, And Its Vicinity, Principally On Farms. The Curd Is Pressed In Molds—sometimes Of Metal, But Usually Of Wood, Cup Shaped And Round Bottomed, With Similar Shaped Tops To Com Pletc The Spherical Form—going Next For A Few ...

Eggs
Eggs: One Of The Most Generally Valuable Of Food Products, Because Of The Many Ways In Which They Are Utilized. When Lightly Cooked, Eggs Are Easily Digested And Are Well Suited To Sick Or Cate People. Boiled Hard Or Fried, They Are More Difficult Of Assimilation. A Fresh Egg Is ...

Endive
Endive, Cichorium Endivia: A Salad Plant Of The Chicory Family And Closely Allied To The Dandelion, Originally Brought From China To Europe In The Sixteenth Century. The Two Principal Types Under Cultiva Tion Are Those Known To Gardeners As "curly Endive," With Narrow, Feathery Leaves, And "broad-leafed" Or "bata Vian" ...

Extracts
Extracts: As Familiar To The Average Retailer And Consumer, Consist Of A Certain Percentage Of True Extract Or Essence, Or Its Chemical Imitation, In An Alcoholic Solu Tion. The Aromatic Principles Of A Great Many Spices, Nuts, Herbs, Fruits, Etc., And Some Flowers, Are Thus Marketed, Among The Best Known ...

Fairy Clubs
Fairy Clubs And Corals. The Genus Clarariacroc Includes A Number Of Fleshy, Club-shaped And Coral-like Fungi, Many Of Which Are Edible. Some Of Them Are Very Beautiful, Showing The Most Delicate Shades Of Pink, Yellow, Violet, Etc. They Range From Very Small To Several Inches In Height. Growing On Wood ...

Fetticus
Fetticus: One Of The Many Names For Corn Salad (which See). The "pulled" Figs Are Then Placed In "layers" In Boxes And The Piling Up Of The Boxes On Each Other Presses The Contents. A Few Bay Leaves Are Generally Placed On Top Of The Filled Boxes, Partly For The ...

Fish
Fish. The Annual Catch Of Fish In The United States—sea, Lakes And Rivers—averages About 2,200,000,000 Pounds, Most Of Which Is Consumed In This Country. To Obtain The Actual Quantity Of Food Represented, The Figures Must Be Considerably Reduced, As The Loss Of Weight In Dressing Varies From 15% To 50%. ...

Fish Culture Or
Fish Culture Or Pisciculture. Propagation Of The Principal Food Fishes Is Con Ducted On A Steadily Expanding Scale In The United States And The Results Long Ago Demonstrated The Immense National Profit Derived. The Salmon, The Shad And Many Other Important Fishes Would In All Probability Be Practically Extinct To-day ...

Flour
Flour: Is Grain Of Any Kind Ground To Fine Powder, As Wheat Flour, Rye Flour, Etc. In General Use, Except When Otherwise Specified, The Term Signifies Wheat Flour. Flour Is An Article Of Prime Importance To The Grocer, As The Quality Which He Furnishes Has A Direct Effect On The ...

Foie Gras
Foie Gras: Signifies Literally And Actually "fat Liver"—but It Is Applied Particu Larly To The Livers Of Fat Geese. Those Of Fat Ducks Are Similarly Employed But The Product Is Considered Inferior And Retails At Lower Prices. One Of The Most Famous Industries Of Strasburg, Germany, And Toulouse, France, Is ...

Food Values
Food Values — The Foods We Eat, Their Characters, Comparative Values And Digestibility. There Is Much Yet To Be Learned Concerning The Comparative Effects Of Foods Taken Into The Human System And The Processes By Which They Are Converted Into Flesh, Blood, Bone, Nerves And Brain, But The Advance Of ...