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chateau, sauternes and sugar

BORDEAUX WINES—White: a majority of the white Bordeaux wines exported are produced in the celebrated Graves section of the department of the Gironde.

The cheapest grades are generally marketed here as Barsac, Bommes and Graves; the next higher as Sauternes, Haut Sauternes and Haut Barsac. The term "Haut" in this connection means "Upper," the higher sections of the Sauternes and Barsac districts producing wine of better quality.

The most famous variety is the Chateau Yquem Sauternes—some vintages attain exceedingly high value. The other first "eras" (growths or districts) are Chateau Latour-Blanche, Chateau Peyraguey, Chateau Vigneau, Chateau Suduiraut, Chateau Coutet, Chateau Climenz, Château (Bayle) Guiraud, Chateau Rieussec and Chateau Rabaut.

The principal differences in the making of such wines as "Sauternes" and "Claret" are, that for Sauternes, "white" grapes are generally employed and that they are left on the vines until the last possible moment, until they are beginning to wrinkle with ripeness, so as to obtain the fullest amount of sugar; that the juice is pressed and re moved from the grapes as rapidly as possible to avoid its being colored by the skins, and that, going into the press later in the season, fermentation is arrested before all the sugar has been transformed into alcohol—producing a wine "white" instead of red and sweeter than claret—in which practically all sugar has been transformed. In ad

dition is, generally, a special selection of the grapes used—varieties heavy in sugar, such as Sauvignon and Semeillan, being grown in the majority of the vineyards of the Sauternes district—and, frequently, the addition of a small quantity of sugar-syrup after fermentation.

The bulk of American "Sauternes" is produced in the Pacific Coast range district. Both the Eastern and Southern wine districts also supply a limited quantity, some brands being excellent in flavor and characteristics.

See general article on WINES—Tempera t re, Decanting, etc.