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paraffin, stearin and employed

CANDLES: are now generally made by molding in metal forms, though some grades, notably church candles, are still made by the dipping process. The materials chiefly employed are stearin, paraffin and beeswax, separate and in various combinations and compositions. For decorative purposes they are frequently colored with aniline dyes.

Tallow candles, formerly the most common, are now seldom sold except in frontier districts and other remote parts—they are very easily and cheaply manufactured but burn away so much more rapidly that other kinds are really less expensive.

Stearin candles are also known as "Adamantine candles because they are capable of sustaining a very warm temperature without bending. They give excellent serv ice and are deservedly popular. Stearin is obtained from tallow by separating it from the oil and glycerine. Its crystalline structure at first rendered manufacture difficult as the crystals contracted when the candles cooled after molding, but this has been remedied by mixing in a little paraffin.

Paraffin, a petroleum product which is largely employed to-day, makes a clear candle resembling wax and gives a good pleasant light. A little stearin is usually

added as the pure paraffin is apt to bend or droop when warm.

Beeswav candles are employed principally for church and decorative purposes. Spermaceti, from the head of the sperm whale, was formerly an important candle material but is now practically out of use.

Hotel candles are merely ordinary candles of about half the usual size.

Modern candles burn with a quiet, steady flame. If they flare, flicker and gutter, it is because they are exposed to drafts. The cotton wicks now used are braided and are chemically so treated as to be self-consuming—snuffing them is no longer necessary.

Although petroleum, gas and electricity are improved factors in artificial lighting. candles are still used in large quantities on account of their adaptability for produc ing a light promptly under all conditions, and, chiefly, because they have the advan tage over all other forms of lighting in being both portable and absolutely safe.