CHEESE: the product obtained by coagulat ing the casein of milk by means of rennet or acids, with or without the addition of ripening ferments and seasonings. The casein is usually coagulated with rennet, the curd being then separated from the whey and pressed in suitable molds. By act of Congress, approved June 6, 1896, cheese may contain additional harmless coloring matter—this generally consists of an natto or other colors from vegetable sources.
Whole-milk or full-cream cheese is made from milk from which no portion of the fat has been removed. If. S. Standard whole milk cheese or full-cream cheese is cheese containing in the water-free substance not less than fifty (50) per cent of butter fat. Cream cheese is made from milk and cream, or milk containing not less than six (6) per cent of fat.
18k/ill-milk cheese is made from milk from which part of the fat has been removed. Cheeses are commonly graded as Special, Fancy, Good, Prime, Common, etc. Italy and Switzerland supply the greater part of the cheese imported. Next come Holland and France.
As an article of food, cheese is very nutritious. When eaten in quantities it bur dens the digestive organs, but in small amounts, as a condiment, it stimulates and aids the digestion of rich foods and dessert. When taken after eating, and especially when rich and old, it is particularly efficacious in that respect by powerfully promoting the secretion of saliva and gastric juice.
In the United States, cheese making has been transferred bodily from the realm of domestic arts to that of the manufacturer, and farm-made cheeses are hard to find anywhere.
New York and Wisconsin together produce three-quarters of the entire output of t h e country. Next in order are Ohio, Illinois, Michi gan and Pennsylvania.
More than nine-tenths of the cheese made is of the familiar standard copied after the Eng lish Cheddar. The annual consumption here though is only 3 lbs. per capita, which shows how, little its highly nutritious value is appreciated.
In manufacture, the milk is generally warmed in large vats to a temperature of not less than 84° Fahr. The rennet, or other coagulative mixture, is then added, a pint of .rennet being sufficient to turn from 2000 to 30'0'0 quarts of milk. As the curd forms, the temperature is raised to nearly 100°, until the whole mass of curd separates from the whey. The latter is then drawn off by cutting the curd across both ways, and passing wired paddles or curd-knives through it. After the whey has been removed, the curd is allowed to "mat" or ferment slightly and it is then broken up, salted, formed and pressed. Ten days or so later, the cheese is rubbed to remove any
mold, and perhaps paraffined to prevent such formation later. It is then kept until properly ripened for market.
The storing of newly made cheese is the next point that engages the attention of the maker and wholesale dealer. The same principles which influence the maturing or ripening of fermented liquors also operate here. A cool cellar, neither damp nor yet too dry, which is uninfluenced by changes of weather or season, is commonly regarded as best for the purpose. The temperature should not be permitted to exceed 50° to 56° Fahr. at any time—an average of about 45° is preferable when it can be maintained. A place exposed to sudden changes of temperature is as unfit for storing cheese as it is for storing beer. Roquefort, the highest grade of highly ripened cheese, owes much of its perfection to the dry caves in which it is stored and ripened.
The care of cheese in the store is often neglected. In warm weather, it should be kept in a cool, dry place, and frequently inspected and turned over in the boxes. If a cheese shows signs of swelling, it should be pierced with a wire to give vent to the gas, which can then be expelled by gentle pressure on the portion. All mold or mites on the top of the cheese should be swept or neatly scraped off and the surface rubbed with a little sweet oil or strong brine. For maggots or "jumpers," the remedy is to clean the affected parts and keep the cheese well dusted with rice flour. If the loose sheets or plates which lie on the top and bottom of the cheese are found to be damp; they should be replaced by clean, dry ones.
The cut cheese can be kept moist by pressing lightly buttered pieces of parchment firmly on the cut surfaces or by buttering them. There will also be less tendency to wards dryness, and therefore less shrinkage, if each exposed surface is cut from alter nately. The fresh appearance of the cheese in general can be retained by wiping the out side each day with a damp cloth, soaked in salt water.
For the important part played by bacteria, etc., in the ripening of cheese, see article On BACTERIA.
There are countless varieties of cheese, but those described in the following list may be taken as representative of all popular types. Camembert, Cheddar, Cream, Edam, Limburger, Neufchatel. Pineapple and Swiss are depicted in the two color pages of the frontispiece, and (2) facing page 118.
APpENZELL : made either of skim or whole-milk, in Appenzell, Switzerland. It is very similar to Emmenthaler (which see).