CIDER: is the juice of apples, both fermented and unfermented. "Sweet Cider" may be either unfermented or with fermentation checked at an early stage so as to leave unchanged a considerable amount of the sugar in the juice. "Hard Cider" is that in which fermentation has continued until all the sugar has been changed into alcohol (and carbon-dioxide) and is consequently sour to the taste. Unfermented cider is fre quently styled "apple juice" to distinguish it from fermented "sweet cider." Cider is obtained by chopping and grinding apples to a pulp, and then pressing in a mill. A dark liquid is obtained Which, unless sterilized for "apple juice," will at once begin to ferment and in a few days become the liquid known to commerce as fermented "sweet cider." Great care is again necessary to preserve it in that condition or it quickly develops into "hard cider." Fermented sweet cider contains from 4% to 8% alcohol and also malic and acetic acids, sugar salts and extractives. Among the most popular, are clarified types such as Champagne Cider, Sparkling Cider and similar imitations of Champagne, generally put up in champagne bottles, with the corks wired down and covered with tin-foil. It should be stored in a cool place, and it greatly improves with age.
Bulk Cider should be kept especially cool, as otherwise it is apt to sour after being tapped. At a temperature of about 75° Fahr., it will gradually become vinegar.
If the head of a cask is swollen by pressure from within, a hole should be bored in it to relieve the pressure and prevent leakage.
Cider for bottling should be of good quality, sound and piquant, and at least twelve months old. Before bottling, it should be examined to see if it is clear and spark ling. If not, it should be clarified (see CLARIFICATION) and left for a fortnight. The bung should be taken out of the cask the night before the bottling day, and the filled bottles should be held a day before being corked down—these precautions are necessary to save the bottles from being burst by pressure. Only the best corks should be used.
When cider is wanted for immediate use, or for consumption during the Cooler portion of the year, the bottles may be corked within two or three hours after being filled, but in summer, or for long keeping, this px'actice is inadmissible.
To keep new cider from fermentation, powdered 'Wood charcoal in the ratio of a pint to a ' barrel is recommended. PlaC'e, In a cotton bag and suspend in the barrel, A small quantity of cider is annually imported, chiefly from Spain and Germany,.