WALNUTS: the nut-fruit of a large tree extensively cultivated in many parts of the world. The California orchards now supply nearly half of the total United States consumption. France furnishes about three-quarters of the walnuts imported, between twenty and thirty million pounds a year, the bulk of the balance coming from Italy, with lesser quantities from Chile, Turkey, Austria, etc.
French Walnuts are generally known as Grenobles, sub-divided into two prin cipal grades, pure "layettes" and Commercials, the latter including Marlots, Cornes, Lots, Cahors,_etc. The best Italian are those known as Sorrentos.
The type always understood commercially under the general name of "walnut" is that formerly known here as the "English Walnut." The California orchards have been developed from imported stock of that variety.
The two principal varieties of native American walnuts are the Black, which offers nut-meat excellent in quality but contained in woody receptacles so strong that nut-picks are required to extract it, and the American "White Walnut," which is more generally known as the Butternut and which is even more toughly coated.
If catering to good class trade, one should select medium-large nuts, of uniform size—this adds greatly to their attractiveness—and thin, smooth, light-colored shells of nice shiny appearance. The stock must always be kept in a cool dry place and pro tected from rats.
The green nuts, gathered before the inner shells harden, make excellent pickles. The kernels are also pressed for oil ; the husks and the juice of the green fruits are used in the manufacture of hair and other dyes, and the bruised leaves have an aromatic odor which drives away moths.
See also Color Page facing 410 and articles on BUTTERNUTS and NUTS.