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The Grocer's Encyclopedia by Artemas Ward (1911)

Puff Ball
Puff-ball (see Page Illustration Of Edible Fungi In Article On Mushrooms) : A Large Species Of Fungus With Properties And Flavor Resembling The Mushroom, Which Could Easily Be Developed Into An Important Source Of Food Supply. It Is Found In Several Parts Of The United States, Both In Prairie , ...

Quail
Quail. The Bird Which Is Most Generally Accepted In The United States Under This Title, Is Really The Bob-white--which Differs From The Quail Proper In Several Respects And Is In Many Points Its Superior. It Is Exported To England And Elsewhere Under The Name Of Virginia Quail. Its Upper Plumage ...

Quince
Quince: A Fruit Of The Apple And Pear Family, Native To Southern Europe And Asia, Now Cultivated In Every Temperate Climate. It Was An Article Of Popular Consump Tion Among The Ancient Greeks And Romans And Is Credited With Being The Original Marmalade Fruit (see Marma Lade). It Is In ...

Rabbits
Rabbits: A Family Of Small Rodents Of The Leporidae Genus. In Some Sections Of The United States The Name Is Applied Also To Members Of The Hare Family (see Bare). In The Central States, The Hare Is Distinguished By The Appellation "jack-rabbit," The Rabbit Being Colloquially Known As The "cotton-tail." ...

Raisins
Raisins: Are Special Varieties Of Grapes Prepared By Drying. The Term "dried Grapes" Is Only Applied To Wine Grapes Dried In The Sun And Their Only Commercial Use Is For Wine Makers—they Are Not Sold Or Used As "raisins." The First Market Division Is Into Imported And Domestic, Or California. ...

Restaurant
Restaurant. The Restaurant, As We Know It, Is An Institution Of Comparatively Recent Origin. There Have Been Inns And Hotels From Time Immemorial, But They Were Chiefly For The Entertainment Of Travelers—though We Find Evidence That Even As Early As The 16th Century A Goodly Number Of The Residents Of ...

Rhine Wines
Rhine Wines, Rhine And Moselle Wines. German Wines Are In This Country Commonly Known As "rhine Wines" Or "rhine And Moselle Wines," The Reason Being Easily Found In The Fad That A Majority Of The Most Famous Varieties Come From The Vineyards In The Vicinity Of The Rhine And Its ...

Rhubarb
Rhubarb: A Plant Grown Exclusively For Its Stalks, Which Serve As An Excellent "fruit" For Use As Sauce, In Pies, Etc. A Pleasing Wine Can Also Be Prepared From Them. The First Supplies Of Many Cities Are Obtained By Forcing In Cold Frames And Greenhouses. The Earliest ,rea( Hes The ...

Rivesaltes
Rivesaltes.* Rol (clos Du). Red Burgundy (class Iii.). Romanee, Romanee Conti. Red Burgundy.* Romanee St. Vivant. Red Burgundy (class Ii.). Roquemaure. Dry, Rose-colored, Rhone District. Rosa (vin Doux). Sweet, Rose-tinted, From Mt. Lebanon. Rosomo.* Rota. See Tinto De Rota, This List. Rothenberger. Rhine Wine. Roucoule. Red Hermitage. Roussillon. Fruity, Spirituous, ...

Roquefort
Roquefort: A Famous Cheese, Named After The French Of Roquefort, Where Great Herds Of The Sheep That Supply The Milk Are Pastured On An Immense Plain Of Rich Velvet-like Herbage, Which Is Stringently Protected By Both Law And Custom. Remark Able Care And Skill Are Employed In Its Manufacture. The ...

Rosin Soap Or Bar
Yellow Soap, Rosin Soap Or Bar Soap Owes Its Color To The Large Quantity Of Rosin Incorporated. Most Laundry Soaps Contain This Ingredient, As It Supplies The Lather Lacking In The Tallow, Their Chief Component. It Also Possesses Detergent Prop Erties And Is At The Same Time A Cheap Filling ...

Ruffed Grouse
Ruffed Grouse: One Of The Most Important Members Of The Grouse Family— Known Generally As The American Partridge. See Grouse. For 1 Shilling 6 Pence A Gallon, Which Is Practically To-day's Wholesale Price For New Rum (exclusive Of The Internal Revenue Tax). It Is Also Worthy Of Note That The ...

Salads
Salads: Were Formerly Confined To A Few Raw Green Herbs, But To-day They Cover A Wide Range, Practically All Kinds Of Food Being So Served. They Deserve Much Wider Recog Nition Than Is Popularly Accorded Them, For, Properly Made, They Offer A Variety Of Food Combinations That Are Particularly Wholesome ...

Salmon
Salmon. The Two Principal Families Of Salmon Are The Salmo Salar Of The North At Lantic (see Color Page Opposite 540), Rang Ing On The American Side Upwards From New York And Generally Known As The Kennebec Salmon, And The Oncorhynchus, Which In Cludes The Chief Pacific Coast Varieties. The ...

Salt
Salt. Common Salt Is Simply Chloride Of Sodium—a Compound Containing About 35 Parts Of Chlorine And 23 Of Sodium. It Is Obtained Principally In Three Ways—by Evaporation Of The Brine From Brine Wells Or Springs, From Salt Mines And By Evaporation Of Sea Water. The Greater Part Of The Salt ...

Sardines
Sardines: Are Popularly Supposed To Be Little Fish That Are Found Only On The Coast Of France, Other Products So Labeled Being Merely Imitations! This Impression Is Not Accurate, As The Title—taken From The Mediterranean Island Of Sardinia—is By Com Mercial Usage Applied To The Young Of Divers Clupeoid Fish ...

Sauces And Relishes
Sauces And Relishes: As They Concern The Grocer, Are Bottled Mixtures Of Extracts Of Condiments, Vegetables, Fruits, Etc., For Use With Meats, Fish, Soups And Various Other Foods. They Have Been Employed For Culinary And Table Purposes Since The Time Of The Ancient Romans. Many Of Them Are Based On ...

Sausages
Sausages: Of The Best Quality, Consist Essentially Of Minced Prime Fresh Meat, Either Beef Or Pork, Or Both, Cured, Spiced, Stuffed Into Casings And, Usually, Smoked. With Few Exceptions, All Sausages, Other Than Those For Immediate Disposal, Should Be Kept, Preferably Hung, In A Cool Dry Dark Place. To Be ...

Scuppernong
Scuppernong.* Seewein. White Austrian (german Tyrol). Sercial. Madeira.* Sestri Levante. White Italian, From Genoa. Setural. White Portuguese. Shiebbs. White Austrian. Shiraz. Sweet Rich Persian—red, Amber And White. Sieblingener. White Dry Swiss. Simonthurn. Sweetish Red Hungarian. Siracusa. Italian.* Sittersdorfer. Deep Red Illyrian (austria). Sliwowitz. White Hungarian. See Also Slivovitz (liqueur). Solera. ...

Sherry
Sherry: A "white" Wine Made From Grapes Grown In And Around Xeres, Anda Lusia, Spain, Its Name Being An English Attempt To Say Xeres—"sherries." The Process Of Manufacture Is Ex Ceedingly Simple And One In Which Scien Tific Principles, As Now Understood, Have Never Entered. After The Grapes Are Pressed ...

Shot
Shot. One Of The Secrets Of The Manufacture Of Shot And The Part Of The Process Requiring The Most Skill, Is The Mixing Of The Lead With A Certain Proportion Of An Alloy Called "temper." The Temper Is Melted With The Lead And Gives It A Peculiar Quality Which Causes ...

Smoked Meats
Smoked Meats: Need Especially Careful Attention During The Summer Months. For A Discriminating Class Of Trade, "canvassed" Are Preferable To "naked" Hams And Bacon. Under Present Methods Of Government And State Inspection, The Consumer Is Reasonably Sure That The Ham That He Purchases Came From An Animal In Sound Health, ...

Snails
Snails. The Edible Land Snails Consumed In Large Quantities In France And Several Other European Countries, Present A Considerable Diversity In Size And Appearance. The Most Highly Esteemed Are The Helix Pomatia, Locally Known As The Burgundy, Large White, Roman, Vineyard, Etc., With Shells Varying From Greyish-yellow To Grey Ish-red ...

Snuff
Snuff: Is Made From Various Grades Of Leaf Tobacco And In Many Styles, From Fine-powdered To Coarse, And From Plain To Highly Perfuthed. There Are Three Main Classes : Scotch, Dry, Yellow Or Light-colored And Finely Powdered, Its Distinctive Odor Due To The Extent To Which The "toasting" Is Carried ...

Soap
Soap: Is Supposed To Be Of Celtic Origin. Its First Introduction To Civilization Took Place After The Invasion Of Gaul By The Romans. During The 8th Century, Italy And Spain Were The Centers Of The Industry. Five Hundred Years Later, Pre-eminence Had Been Won By The Soap-makers Of Marseilles, France. ...

Soda
Soda: In The Form In Which It Is Chiefly Used For Food Purposes, Is Variously Known As Bicarbonate Of Soda Or Sodium, Supercarbonate Of Soda, Saleratus And Baking Soda. The Prefix "bi" In The First-named Title Stands For "two," Meaning Two Equiva Lents Of Carbon-dioxide To One Of The Base, ...

Soda Fountains
Soda-fountains. Within The Last Few Years A Number Of Large Groceries Have Added Soda-fountains And Have Found Them Very Profitable In Various Ways In Addi Tion To The Margin On The Ice Cream And Soda Sales—by Gaining New Store Customers Among People Who At First Merely Dropped In For A ...

Soy Bean
Soy Bean. Commercial And Government Circles Both In Europe And This Country Are Devoting Increasing Attention To The Cultivation Of The Soy Bean As A Food Product, As It Contains A Large Percentage Of Pro Tein And A Fair Amount Of Fat, Thus Resembling Meat In General Nutritive Value. The ...

Spices
Spices: May Be Described As Aromatic Vegetable Substances Used Chiefly For The Sea Soning Of Food. They Represent Different Portions Of Their Respective Plants—ginger Is The Root-stock; Cinnamon Is The Bark; Cloves, Nutmeg, Etc., Represent The Fruit, And Sage, Thyme And Other Herbs, The Entire Upper Part Of The Plant. ...

Sponges
Sponges: Are Popularly Regarded As A Kind Of Sea-plant, But In Reality They Are The Skeletons Of A Low-type Animal. They Are Reproduced By Means Of Eggs, And The Developed Larvm Are Partly Clothed With Small Hairs Which Enable Them To Swim Or Drift Around Until They Find Suitable Places ...

Starch
Starch: Is One Of The Most Important And Widely Diffused Of The Proximate Principles Of The Vegetable Kingdom, Being Found In Nearly All Plants, Serving For Them The Purpose Of Reserve Food. It Is Formed From The Water, Obtained By The Roots From The Soil, And The Carbon-dioxide Drawn From ...

Sugar
Sugar. Until The Middle Of The Nineteenth Century, The World Relied Almost Entirely On The Sugar-cane For Sugar. By 1860, The Manufacture Of Beet Sugar Had Begun To Attain Commercial Importance And It Continued To Increase Thereafter So Rapidly And To Such An Extent That The Cane Plantations Of The ...

Sweet Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes: Are The Roots Or Tubers Of A Creeping, Vine-like Plant, Native To Tropical America But Growing Freely In Any Part Of North America Where The Summers Are Long Enough To Permit Sufficient Root Growth, And Cultivated Also In The East Indies, The Philippines And Other Eastern Coun Tries, ...

Syrup
Syrup: A Title Under Which May Be Grouped A Wide Diversity Of Articles. The Two Highest Types Are Maple Syrup (which See) And Cane Syrup, The Latter Obtained By Condensation And Refining Of Sugar-cane Juice, Without Extraction Of Any Of The Sugar Content. Next Come Those Obtained As The Residue ...

Taunus Spring
Taunus Spring. See Article On Table And Medicinal Mineral Waters. Tautog: Another Title, From The Indian Word Taut, For The Blackfish ( Which See) . Parts Of China, It Is Known At Ta, Cha, Dzo, Etc. The Tea Shrub Is An Evergreen Somewhat Similar In Appearance To The Camellia, To ...

Tea Terms
Tea Terms. It Will Be Noted That The Titles Originally Applied Exclusively To The China Product Have Extended To Nearly All Teas, Irrespective Of Their Place Of Growth Or Manufacture. A Majority Are Corruptions Of Local Chinese Terms, As For Example :— "oolong," From On-loung, "black Dragon," Referring To The ...

Tobacco
Tobacco. The Origin Of The Word "tobacco" Has Been Traced Back Through Quite An Interesting History. It Starts With The Name Of A Pipe Which The Early Spaniards Found In Santo Domingo, And Which Was Known As The "tobago." Later, This Was Corrupted To "tabaco." The Italians, Portuguese And English ...

Tomato
Tomato: The Fruit Of An Annual Plant Of The Nightshade Family—the Order Which Includes Also The Egg-plant And Potato. It Was For A Long Time Considered Unfit For Food By The General Public, But It Is Now Highly Esteemed As Especially Wholesome And Is Marketed In Enormous And Ever-increasing Quantities ...

Trade Marks
Trade-marks. Trade-marks Deserve The Earnest Attention Of The Grocery Trade. Their Protection Covers Every Proprietary Article Which It Handles, And That Means The Greater Portion Of The Stocks. The Frauds Who Try To Impose Upon The Dealer, And, Through Him, Upon His Customers, Consist Very Largely Of Trade-mark Violators. The ...

Trichinae
Trichinae: Are Small Parasites Or Worms, Barely Visible To The Naked Eye, Which Are Found Sometimes In Pork, And Which, If They Enter The Human System, Breed Rapidly, Bore Through The Walls Of The Intestines And Bury Themselves In The Muscles Of The Sufferer. They Can Exist In Extraordinary Numbers ...

Truffles
Truffles. The Truffle, A Kind Of Fungus, May Justly Be Described As One Of The Most Curious And Least Understood Articles Of Food. We Know That It Grows In Clusters A Few Inches Under The Ground—something Like A Potato, But Without Roots Or Upper Parts Of Any Description—but The Secret ...

Turkeys
Turkeys. The Turkey Is A Native Of North America, And Wild Birds Are Still Found In Some Sections. It Has Been Domesticated Here And In Europe For More Than Three Hundred Years. It Is Distinguished By Its Bare Head, Wattled Neck, Short Curved Bill, Handsome Plumage And Large Size—the Male ...

Turtle
Turtle: A Marine Reptile Much Esteemed For Its Meat, Which Is Used In The Form Of Steaks, Stews, Soups, Etc. The Green Turtle Leads All Other Rieties In The Market, And Is Sold Alive, Dried And Canned. Only The "cow" Is Generally Sought, The Flesh Of The Bull Turtle Being ...

Vanilla
Vanilla. The True Vanilla Bean From Which Genuine Vanilla Extract Is Made, Is The Dried Pod Of The Vanilla Plant, A Climbing Vine Of The Orchid Family. The Best Beans Are Those From The Cultivated, Flat-leaved Vanilla Vine, Found At Its Highest Excel Lence In Certain Valleys Near The Eastern ...

Varnish
Varnish. The Chief Ingredient Of The Best Varnish Is Gum Copal, A Substance Exuded From The Copal Tree, Which Is Found In Mexico, Africa, Brazil, New Zealand, India And The East Indies. The East Indies And New Zealand Are The Principal Sources Of The United States Supply. It Resembles Amber—which ...

Veal
Veal: Is The Dressed Carcass Of A Calf. It Requires Close Attention On The Part Of The Retailer, As It Is Much More Difficult To Keep Than Beef. "hog-dressed" Veal Is The Car Cass Left In Its Hide After Being Trimmed And Cleaned—in That Form It Best Retains Its Moisture ...

Vegetables
Vegetables. The Average American Housewife Is Gradually Increasing Her Use Of Vegetables—to The Advantage Of The General Health Of The Community—but There Is Room For Still Greater Appreciation Of Them As Part Of The Every-day Diet. In Addition To Their Service Boiled, Baked Or Fried To Accompany The Meat, A ...

Vinegar
Vinegar: May Be Briefly Described As A Low Percentage Dilute Natural Acid— Generally Acetic Acid. It Is Obtained By The Conversion Of The Alcohol Contained In A Liquid—wine, Cider, Beer, Etc.—into Acid As The Result Of The Activity Of A Class Of Acid-producing Bacteria. The Cloudy, Stringy-looking Matter In The ...

Walnuts
Walnuts: The Nut-fruit Of A Large Tree Extensively Cultivated In Many Parts Of The World. The California Orchards Now Supply Nearly Half Of The Total United States Consumption. France Furnishes About Three-quarters Of The Walnuts Imported, Between Twenty And Thirty Million Pounds A Year, The Bulk Of The Balance Coming ...

Water
Water: In Some Form Is Essential To All Forms Of Animal, And Nearly All Kinds Of Vegetable, Life. Its Consumption In Liberal Quantities Is Especially Necessary To Civil Ized Communities Because Of The Generally Dry Character Of The Bulk Of Their Diet— The Human Body Requires An Average Of Nearly ...

Watermelons
Watermelons. See General Article On Melons. From Four To Five Pounds. The Product, After Remelting And Refining, Is Chiefly Used For Candles, Which Burn Slowly With Little Smoke And Emit An Agreeable Balsamic Odor, But Fail To Give A Brilliant Light. An Excellent Scented Fancy Soap Is Also Made From ...

Whale Oil
Whale Oil: Is Obtained Principally From Two Species Of Whale—the Sperm Whale And The Right Whale. The Former, Or Cacholot, Known Also As The Spermaceti Whale, Inhabits Nearly All Seas And Has A Wide Geographical Range. It Varies From Sixty To Seventy Feet In Length And Will Yield From Six ...

Wheat
Wheat (see Color Page Opposite 676). The Pre-eminence Of Wheat, In Other Than Asiatic Countries, Is Attributable Chiefly To The Fact That, In The Universally Desired Form Of Bread, It Is More Generally Acceptable Than Any Other Grain. Its Superiority In That Respect Is Due To Its Comparatively Large Content ...

Whisky
Whisky: As The Word Is Generally Understood To-day, Is Spirit Of Potable Strength Obtained By Distillation From The Fermented Solutions Of Various Grains—rye, Corn, Barley, Wheat, Etc.—as Brandy Is Of Fruits, Principally Of Wine, I. E., Grapes. An Important Exception To This Generalization Is That Grain Spirit Flavored With Juniper ...

White
White Haut Barsac Haut Cerons. White Bordeaux. Haut Sauternes. White Bordeaux.* Heidesheimer. Red Rhine Wine. Heiligengeistwein. Franconia (see Rhine Wine). Hemsberger. White German, Odenwald District. Herault. See Cette Wines. Herbemont. U. S., Rosy-white, Sherry-style. Hermitage. 1—see Hermitage. 2—rich Red Australian. Herrenberger. Rhine Wine. Hesslocher. Rhine Wine. Highercomoe. Dry Australian, Amber ...

Window Displays
Window Displays. As A Business-bringing Medium The Important Value Of A Well-dressed Show Window Is Now So Generally Accepted That Further Supporting Argument Is Quite Unnecessary, Therefore A Discussion Of This Subject Can Be Confined Entirely To Those Principles And Methods Generally Recognized As Most Essential For Successful Grocery Store ...

Wine
Wine: Is Not Always Found In The Grocer's Stock, But It Is In Many Localities A Profit Able Branch Of The Trade When It Is Kept Iu Its Proper Place. If Sold Only In Bottles Or By The Quantity, With No Sampling, It Attracts A Good Class Of Customers Who ...

With The Coffee
With The Coffee. Liqueurs, As Creme De Menthe, Chartreuse, Benedictine Or Fine Cognac. Also, Throughout The Meal, High-class Table Waters. The Choice Of The Particular Brands, Etc., Must Naturally Depend On (1) The Amount The Host Wishes To Spend And His Individual Fancy Or Preference, And (2) The Physical Construction ...

Yeast
Yeast: Is The Family Name Of Those Tiny Plants Or Micro-organisms Belonging To The Fungi Class Which Reproduce Themselves By Budding. There Are Many Varieties. But They Are All Oval Or Round, Colorless And Nearly Transparent, Except When Great Numbers Are Bulked Together, And So Small That Singly They Cannot ...