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wines, quantity, alcohol, bar, store and juice

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WINE: is not always found in the grocer's stock, but it is in many localities a profit able branch of the trade when it is kept iu its proper place. If sold only in bottles or by the quantity, with no sampling, it attracts a good class of customers who use, but do not abuse, the product of the vine and who, for that very reason, prefer to pur chase from the grocer.

Selling liquor over the bar should not be mixed with retailing groceries, although in some sections it is very generally done. In the end, it limits the success of the store instead of aiding it. The best custom is driven away, and that which remains too often ends by owing both the bar and the store, the store having trusted a little more liber ally on account of the bar, and the bar unable to refuse the credit asked lest the whole bill should be lost—as it frequently is.

The term "'Wine" is usually applied only to the fermented juice of the grape, but other fruits, as currants, raspberries, blackberries, gooseberries, elderberries, etc., are employed to make products distinguished generally by the name of the fruit or known as Domestic, or Home-made, wines.

The grapes are, for most types of wine, picked when just fully ripe, the juice being extracted by crushing and pressing, and stored in open vats for the first or active fermentation. The product is then drawn off the lees and placed in casks for the second or slow fermentation, during which the "character" of the wine develops. The subsequent processes differ according to the style and character of the wine desired (see special articles on CHAMPAGNE, SHERRY, etc.). During development, many wines undergo several "finings" (see CLARIFICATION) . The lees, or Argol, deposited is largely utilized in the form of CREAM OF TARTAR ( which see).

The quantity of alcohol in the wines of popular usage generally varies within the following percentages : Wines, however, are not consumed for their alcohol alone. They contain other ingredients, derived from the grape juice, which are more important, both commercially and from the standpoint of the epicure. Their value depends largely on their age, flavor

and bouquet.

The matter of age varies with differ ent classes—some reach their prime at four or five years; others will continue to improve after the lapse of several dec ades. The flavor is attributable to the cenanthic ether formed during the fer mentation of the grape juice—and on its delicacy and other characteristics rests the first popular classification of the merit of a wine. The bouquet, or blame, which frequently suggests the odors of vio lets, almonds, etc., is a higher quality peculiar to certain varieties and generally the factor chiefly responsible for giving one wine a value of five dollars a bottle, while another of the same alcoholic con tent and general properties, may be listed at only fifty cents. The bouquet is due to obscure volatile oils or to ethers (other than cenanthic) developed by the combi nation of certain acids in the wine with the ethyl of the alcohol content—so in tangible that they are not detectable by chemical agency, yet very distinct and real to the educated palate.

Among the other substances which lend character are the saline compounds. These, the ashes of vegetable tissues, exist in varying quantity in all fruits, and are found dissolved in their juices, both before and after fermentation. The most abundant is bitartrate of potash, or tartar, but there are numerous others, especially tartrate of lime, tartrate of iron, chloride of sodium, chloride and sulphate of potas sium, sulphate of potash and phosphate of alumina, occurring in a total proportion of from one to four parts in one thousand of wine. Their presence is one of the surest indications of the genuineness of a wine. Those who manufacture "wines" chiefly from alcohol and water, only incorporating a certain quantity of true wine for flavor, do not usually add these mineral constituents.

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