IMPROVEMENTS TO MODELLING.
In doing this, extreme care must be taken to preserve the modelling of the face, as any unintentional alteration to that will be liable to affect the likeness seriously. Certain alterations are, how ever, quite allowable if skilfully clone, but this is just where individual artistic taste is of so much value ; since, if overdone, these alterations are very bad. A frowning expression may be considerably softened, a double chin may be toned clown, a broad nose may be thinned, and a thin face may be fattened ; all without serious loss of likeness, if skilfully performed. The great thing is so to arrange the parts which have been improved, flattered; or whatever it is preferred to call it, that they are not brought obtrusively forward, but remain in shadow, or at least in such an arrangement. of contrast that they do not attract attention. In fact, merely by this means aloneónamely, softening the con trastómuch may be done to apparently flatter a face, without really making any alteration of its form. It must be under stood from the outset, therefore, that the art of working up is the same as in portrait painting ; namely, to bring into pro minence all those parts or features which are good, and to keep obscured those which are less pleasing. This can only be done by contrast. For example, if the subject has a big, misshapen nose, the light upon it must be kept subdued, it must be toned down if necessary, and its outline rendered soft and indistinct ; while there must be no deep and firm lines on the shadow side to emphasise its form.
Again, supposing the eyes are staring, and inclined to squint, the light may be toned I down, and the outline of the iris of the , shadowed eye made less distinct. This will, of course, make it less easy to compare the two eyes. A large and badly shaped mouth should have its outline softened. If the eyes are expressionless they may be . brightened, by increasing the light in the corner of the eye, and by sharpening the outline of pupil and iris. This must not be done with a streak round it, but by a series 1 of very fine lines taking the direction shown in Fig. 459. The pupil of the eye should be put on as a dark wash. When dealing with the light in the eye it should be borne in mind that there is a reflected light on the opposite side of the iris, which must be in harmony with it. The nose may, of course, be brought into prominence slightly, where its shape is exceedingly good, by improving the de finition of its outline. The chief aim in dealing with forehead and cheeks must be to impart roundness, while preserving the modelling.