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Alkali
Alkali, In Chemistry, A Word Applied To All Bodies That Possess The Following Properties: They Change Vegetable Blue Colours, As That Of An Infusion Of Violets, To Green : They Have An Acrid Andpeculiar Taste : They Serve A.s Intermedia Between Oils And Water: They Are Capable Of Com Bining ...

Allen
Allen, (taoxxs,) A Celebrated Ma Thematician Of The 16th Century. He Was Born At Uttoxeter In Staffordshire, In 1542; Was Admitted A Scholar Of Trinity Col Lege, Oxford, In 1561; Vihere Lie Took His Degree Of Master Of Arts In 1567. In 1570 He Quitted His College And Fellowship, And ...

Alliteration
Alliteration, In Rhetoric, Is A Fi Gure, Or Decoration In Language, Chiefly Used In Poetry, And Consisting In The Re Petition Of The Same Letter Or Letters At Certain Intervals, Whence The Name Is De Rived. Allium4arlle, In Botany, A Genus Of The Hexandria Mohogynia Class And Or Der ; ...

Almamon
Almamon, Caliph Of Bagdat, A Phi Losopher And Astronomer In The Beginning Of The Ninth Century, He Having Ascended The Throne In The Year 814. Ile Was Son Of Harun Ai-hanel:id, And Grandson Of A Imansor. Having Been Educated With Great Care, And With A Love For The Liberal Sciences, ...

Almanac
Almanac, In Matters Of Literature, A Table Containing The Calendar Of Days And Months, The Rising And Setting Of The Sun, The Age Of The Moon, &c. Authors Are Nekher Agreed About The Inventor Of Almanacs, Nor The Etymology Of The Word; Some Deriving It From The Arabic Particle Al, ...

Aloe
Aloe, In Botany, A Genus Of The Hex Andria Monogynia Class Of Plants, With A Liliaceous Flower, Consisting, Of Only One Tubular. Leaf, Divided Into Six. Deep Seg Ments At The Edge ; Its Fruit Is An Oblong Capsule, Divided Into Three Cells;and Con Taining A Number, Of Angtilated Seeds. ...

Alphabet
Alphabet, In Matters Of Literature, The Natural Or Accustomed Series Of The Several Letters Ofa Language. As Alphabets Were Not Contrived With Design, Or According To The Just Rules Of Analogy And Reason, But Have Been Suc Cessively Framed And Altered, As Occasion Required, It Is Not Surmising That Many ...

Alsine
Alsine, Dick•weed, In Botany, A Ge Nus Of The Pentandria Tiigynia Class And Order, And The Natural Order Of Cary°. Phyllei : Its Characters Are, That The Calyx Is A Fivc-leaved Perianthium, Leaflets Con Cave, Oblong And Acuminate : The Corolla Has Five Equal Petals, Longer Than The Calyx ; ...

Altar
Altar, A Place Upon Which Sacrifices Were Anciently Offered To Some Deity. The Heathens At First Made Their Altars Only Of Turf; In Following Times They Were Made Of Stone, Of Marble, Of Wood, And Even Of Horn, As That Of Apollo In Delos. Altars Differed In Figure As Well ...

Alum
Alum, In Chemistry And The Arts, Is Denotninated Thp Sulphate Of Alumina, Though It Is Not Merely A Combination Of Alumina With The Sulphuric Acid. It Pos Sesses The Following Characters: I: It Has A Sweetish Astringent Taste. 2. It Rs Aolu: Ble In Warm Water, And The Solution Red. ...

Alumina
Alumina, In Chemistry, One Of The Five Proper Earths. It W3.9 Discovered By The Alchemists That Alum Wsis Composed Of Sulphuric Acid And An Earth, The Nature Of Which Was Long Unknown; But Geof Froy, And Afterwards Margrafl; Found That The Earth Of Alum Is An Essential Ingredi Ent In ...

Amalgam
Amalgam, In The Arts. The Metals In General Unite Very Readily With One Another, And Form Compounds; Thus Pew Ter Is A Compound Of Lead And Tin, Brass Is A Compound Of Copper And Zinc, &c. These Are All Called Alloys, Except When One Of The Combining Metals Is Mercury ...

Amaranthus
Amaranthus, In Botany, A Genus Of The Monoecia Pentandria Class And Der, Of The Triandria Tryginia Of Gmelin's Linn:tits; Its Characters Are, That Those Species Which Have Male Flowers On The Same Plants With The Females Have A Ca Lyx, Which Is A Five Or Three-leaved Peri Anthium, Upright, Coloured, ...

Amarillis
Amarillis, In Botany, A Genus Of The Hexandria Monogynia Class And Or Der, Of The Natural Order Of Lilin Or Lilia Cem ; Its Characters Are, That The Calyx Is A Spathe, Oblong, Obtuse, Compressed, Etnarginate, Gaping On The Flat Side, And Withering ; The Corolla Has Six Petals, /anceolate, ...

Amber
Amber, In Mineralogy, A Resinous Sub. Stance, Called By The Ancients Electrum, Found In Different Countries But Most Abundantly' Prussia, Either On The Sea Shore, Or Under Ground, At The Depth Of 100 Feet, Reposing On Wood Coal. It Is Ob. Tained In Lumps Of Different Sizes. There Arc The ...

Ambergris
Ambergris, In Chemistry, Is A Sub Stance Found Floating On The Sea, Near The Coasts Of India, Africa, And Brazil, Usual Ly In Small Pieces, But Sometimes In Mass Es Of 50 Or 10:) Pounds In Weight. Vari Ous Opinions Have Been Entertained Con Cerning Its Origin. Some Affirmed That ...

Amethystea
Amethystea, Amethyst, So Called From The Amethystine Colours Of The Flow Ers, In Botany, A Geniis Of The Diandria Monogynia Class ; The Characters Are, That The Calyx Is A Perianthium One-leafed, Tube Bell-shaped, Angular, Semiquinque Fid, Subequal, Acuminate, And Permanent; The Corolla Is One-petalled, Ringent, Little Longer Than The ...

Ammonia
Ammonia, In Chemistry. Volatile Al Kali, In Its Purest Form, Sulisists In A State Of Gas, And Was Thought, Till The Late Expe Riments Of Mr. Davy, To Be Composed Of Azote And Hydrogen. It May Be Obtained In The Following Manner : Put Into A Retort A Mixture Of ...

Ammos
Ammos, In Anatomy, A Thin Pellucid Membrane, Which Surrounds The Fixtus. The Fcctus In The Uterus Is Enveloped In A Peculiar Membranaceous Covering, To Which Anatomists Hare Given The Name Of Amnios. Within This There Is A Liquid, Distinguished By The Name Of The Liquor Of The Amnios, Which Surrounds ...

Amomum
Amomum, In Botany, A Genus Of The Monandria Nionogynia Class And Order, The Characters Of' Which Are, That The Calyx Is A Perianthium, One-leafed, Cylin Draceous, And Unequally Trifid ; The Co Rolla Is Monopetalous And Funnel-shaped, Tube Cylindraceous, Border Three-parted, Parts Oblong And Spreading; The Nectary Two-leaved Or Two-lipped, ...

Amontons
Amontons (wittiam), In Biogra Phy, An Ingenious _french Experimental Philosopher, Was Born In Normandy The 31st Of August, 1663. While At The Grammar School, He By Sickness Contract Ed A Deafness That Almost Excluded Him From The Conversation Of Mankind. In This Situation He Applied Himself To The Study Of ...

Ampelis
Ampelis, In Natural History, The Chat Terer, A Genus Of Birds Of The Ortler Passeres, Bill Straight, Convex, Subincur Ved, Each Mandible Notched : Nostrils Covered With Bristles : Tongue Sharp, Car Tihiginems, Bifid: Middle Toe Connected At The Base To The Outside. There Are, Ac Cording To Gmelin, Fourteen ...

Amphibia
Amphibia, In Natured History, A Class Of Animals That Live Either On Land Or In Water. 'file Title Amphibia, Applied To This Class Of Animals By Liiiiimus, May Perhaps Be Considered As 110t. Absolutely Unexceptionable, The Power Of Living With Equal Facility- Both In Land And Water Be Ing Not ...

Amphiskena
Amphiskena, In Natural History, A Genus Of Serpents, Of Which The Generic Character Is, Body Cylindric, Equal ; An Nular Divisions On Body And Tail. Accord Ing To Gmelin There Are Five Species ; But Dr. Shaw Mentions Two Only, Viz. The Alba And The Fuliginosa. The Whole Genus Is ...

Amplitude
Amplitude, In Astronomy, An Arch Of The Horizon Intercepted Between The East Or West Point Thereofond The Centre Of The Sun, Star, Or Planet, At Its Rising And Setting, And So Is Either North Or South. If The Amplitude Be Taken From The Rising Sun, Or Star, It Is Called ...

Amputation
Amputation. In Whatever Part This Is Performed, The Surgeon's Object Is The Same, Viz. To Save Enough Of The Surrounding Soft Parts To Cover The Extremity Of The Bone, And Enough Of Skin To Cover The Whole. The Stump Is Always Treated As A Wound Which Should Be United By ...

Anabasis
Anabasis, In Botany, A Genus Of The Pentandria Digynia Ciass And Order : Es Sen. Char.; Calyx, Three-leaved; Cor. Five Petalled : Kberry, One-seeded, Anrrounded By A Calyx : There Are Four Species. 'anacardilim, In Botany, Acajou, A Genus Of The Enneandria Monogynia Class And Order; Its Characters Are, That ...

Analysis
Analysis, In A General Sense, Is The Resolution Of Something Compounded In To Its Constituent Parts. Hence, Analysis, In Chemistry, Is The Separa Tion Of Any Substance Into Its Constituent Parts, With A View Of Ascertaining Their Nature, Relative Proportion, And Mode Of Union. An Instance Of This Kind Is ...

Anamorphosis
Anamorphosis, In Perspective And Painting, A Monstrous Projection Or Re Presentatien Of An Image, On A Plane Or Curve Surface, Which, Beheld At A Proper Distance, Shallappear Regular And In Pro Portion. To Delineate Al Anarnorphosis Upon A Plane : 1. Draw The Square A B C D, (plate I..miscel. ...

Anarhichas
Anarhichas, In Natural History, -wolf Ph, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Of Apodet : Head Rounded, Blunt ; Fore-teeth In Each Jt.w Conic, Large, Divergent, Six Or More ; Grinders In The Lower Jaw And Pa. Late Rounded; Gill-membrane Seven-ray Edl; Body Roundish, Caudal-fin Distinct. There Are Three ...

Anas
Anas, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Anseres. The Bill In This Genus Is Strong, Broad, Flat Or Depressed, And Commonly Furnished At The End With An Additional Piece Termed A Nail, The Edges Of The Mandibles Marked With Sharp Teeth ; Nostrils Small, Oval ; ...

Anatomy
Anatomy. The Admission Of Matter Into The Orifices Of The Absorbing Vessels Has Been Accounted For In Various Ways. Some Physiologists Consider It As A Case Of Capillary Attraction. But A Little Re Flection Is Sufficient To Shew That The Absorbents Are Not Like Capillary Tubes Immersed In A Fluid. ...

Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras, In Biography, A Cele Brated Philosopher Among The Ancients. Ile Was Born In Ionia About The 70th Olym Piad, Became The Disciple Of Anaximencs, And Was Afterwards A Lecturer Himself At Athens. In This City He Was Cruelly Per Secuted, And At Length Banished. He Went To Lampsacus, Where ...

Anchor
Anchor, In Maritime Affairs, An Ex Tremely Useful Instrument, Serving To Re Tain A Ship Or Boat In Its Place. It Is A Very Large And Heavy Iron Instru Ment, With A Double Hook At One End, And A Ring At The Other, By Which It Is Fastened To A ...

Androides
Androides, In Mechanics, An Auto Maton, In The Figure Of A Man, Which, By Virtue Of Certain Springs, &c. Duly Con Trived, Walks And Performs Other External Functions Of A Man. Albertus Magnus Is Recorded As Having Made A Famous An Droides, Which Is Said Not Only To Have Moved, ...

Anemone
Anemone, In Botany, A Genus Of The Polyandria Polygynia Darts And Order. Its Characters Am, That It Has No Calyx ; That The Corolla Has Petals In Two Or Three Rows, Three In A Row, Somewhat Oblong ; The Stamina Have Numerous Filaments, Ca Pillary, Half The Length Of The ...

Anemoscope
Anemoscope. Dr. Hales Had Various Contrivances For This Purpose. He Found, That The Air Rushed Out Of A Smith's Bellows At The Rate Of 684 Feet In A Second Of Time, When Compressed With A Force Of Half A Pound Upon Every Square Inch Lying On The Whole Upper Surface ...

Angelica
Angelica, In Botany, A Genus Of The Pentandria Digynia Class Of Plants, The Ge Neral Umbel Of Which Is Roundish And Mul. Tiple ; The Partial Umbel, While In Flower, Is Perfectly Globose ; The General Involu Crum Is Composed Of Either Three Or Five Leaves ; The Partial Involucrum ...

Angling
Angling, May Be Defined The Art Of Catching Fish By A Rod And Line, Furnished With A Hook And Bait, Or Artificial Fly. It. Is Divided Into Two Species Principally, Fly Fishingandbait Fishing: The First Is Perform Ed By The Use Of Artificial Flies, Which Are Made To Imitate Natural ...

Anguis
Anguis, In Natural History, The Slow Worm, A Genus Of Serpents : The Generic Character Is, Scales Both On The Abdonien And Beneath The Tail. There Are, Accord Ing To Gmelin, 26 Species. This Genus Is Easily Distinguished, By Having The Abdo Men And Untler Part Of' The Tail Covered ...

Animal
Animal, In Natural An Orga Nised And Living Body, Endowed With The Powers Of Sensation, And Of Spontane Ous Loco-motion. Some Hare Defined Ani Mals, From Their Loco-motion, As Being Capable Of Shifting From Place To Place, Whereas Plants Adhere To The Same Sub Ject. This Property They Assume, As ...

Animal_2
Animal, Parts Of, Substances Which Compose The Bodies Of Animals !nay Be Arranged Under The Following Heads: 1. Bones And Shells 2. Horns And Nails 3, Muscles 4. Skin 5. Membranes 6. Tendons And Ligaments 7. Glands 8. Brain And Nerves 9. Hair And Feathers 10. Silk And Similar Bodies. ...

Animalcule
Animalcule, An Animal So Minute In Its Size, As Not To Be The Immediate Ob Ject Of Our Senses. Animalcules Are Usually Divided Into Two Distinct Sections, Visible, And Micro Scopical. The First, Though Visible, Can Not Be Accurately Discerned Without The Belp Of Glasses : The Second Are Discover ...

Anivgdalus
Anivgdalus, In Botany, A Genus Of The Polyandria Monogynia Class And Or Der ; Its Characters Are, That The Calyx Is A Perianthium, One-leaved, Tubulous, In Ferior, Quinquefid, Deciduous, Divisions Spreading And Obtuse ; Time Corolla Of Five Petals, Oblong-ovate, Obtuse, Concave, In Serted Into The Calyx ; The Stamina ...

Annotto
Annotto, In Commerce, A Kind Of Red Dye, Brought From The West-indies. This Is Otherwise Denominated Arnatto. It Is Procured From The Pulp Of The Seed Capsules Of A Shrub Called Achiotte And Mown ; The Bixa Orellana Of Linnxus, Which Grows Seven Oreight Feet High, And Produces Oblong Hairy ...

Annuities
Annuities, Any Income Of A. Certain Yearly Amount, Payable At Particular Peri Ods, Which May Be Either Yearly, Half Yearly, Quarterly, Monthly, Weekly, Or At Any Other Intervals. They Are Usually Dis Tinguished Into Annuities Certain, And Con Tingent Annuities, Or Such As Are For An Un Certain Period, Being ...

Anseres
Anseres, In Natural History, The Third Order Of Bird.s, According To The Linnzan System: They Are Distinguished. By A Smooth Bill, Covered With A Soft: Skin And Broader At The Point ; Feet Formed For Swimming ; Toes. Palmate, Connected By A. Membrane; Shanks Short, And Compress Ed ; Body ...

Anson
" Anson." Robins Was Also Preparing An Enlarged Edition Of His New Principles Of Gunnery; But, Having Provided Himself With A Com Plete Set Of Astronomical And Other In Struments For Making Observations And Experiments In The Indies, He Departed Hence At Christmas In 1749 ; And After A Voyage, ...

Antelope
Antelope, In Natural History, Of The Ilammalia Class Of Animals, Of The Order Glires. The Zeneric Character Is. Horns Hollow, Seated On A Bony Core, Growing Upwards, Annulated Or V..ri.athing, Per Manent. Front Teeth In The Lower Jaw Eight, And No Canine Teeth. Antelopes Constitute A Very Numerous Race : ...

Antimony
Antimony, In Mineralogy, One Of The Metals That Is Brittle And Easily Fused. No Metal Has Attracted So Much Of The Atten Tion Of Physicians As Antimony. One Par Ty Has Extolled It As An Infallible Specific For Every Disease : While Another Decried It As A Most Virulent Poison, ...

Antiquities
Antiquities, A Term Implying All Testimonies, Or Authentic Accounts, That Have Come Down To Us Of Ancient Nations. According To Lord Bacon, Antiquities May Be Considered As The Wrecks Of History, Or Such Particulars As Industrious And Learn Ed Persons Have Collected From Genealo Gies, Inscriptions, Monuments, Coins, Names, Etymologies ...

Aphis
Aphis, In Entomology, A Genus Of The Hemiptera Order, Which Has Engaged The Attention Of Naturalists For Various Rea Sons: Their Generation Exhibits A Singular And Surprising Phenomenon, And Their In Stinctive Economy Differs, In Some Res Pects, From That Of Most Other Animals. Linnmus Defines The Generic Character Of ...

Api Um
Api Um, In Botany, A Genus Of Plants, Including Parsley, Smallage, And Celery. Class, Pentandria Digynia ; Natural Order Of Umbellate. Essen. Character, Cal. Gene Ral Umbel Of Fewer Rays Than Those Of The Partial; Cor. General Uniform ; Floscules Almost All Fertile; Petals Roundish, Inflex, Equal; Stain. Filaments Simple ...

Apis
Apis, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Of Hymenoptera. Gen. Char. Mouth Furnished With Jaws, And An Inflected Proboscis, With Two Bi Valve Sheaths: Feelers 4, Unequal, Filiform : Antenna Short, Filiform, Those Of The Female Subclavate ; Wings Flat Or Without Plaits ; Sting In ...

Apollonius
Apollonius, Of Perga, A City In Pamphilia, Wa.s A Celebrated Geometrician, Who Flourished In The Reign Of Ptolemy Euergetes, About 240 Years Before Christ; Being About 60 Years After Euclid, And 30 Years Later Than Archimedes. Ite Studied A Long Time In Alexandria Under The Disci Ples Of Euclid ; ...

Apothecary
Apothecary, One Who Practises The Art Of Pharmacy, Or That Part Of Physic Which Consists In The Preparation And Composition Of Medicines. A Youth Intended For This Profession• Should Be T Pretty Good Scholar, And Have Such A Knowledge In The I.atin Tongue, Ss To Be Able To Read The ...

Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship, Denotes The Ser Vitude Of An Apprentice, Or Die Duration Of His Indenture. The Competition In Seve Ral Employments Is Restrained To A Smaller Number Than Would Otherwise Be Disposed To Enter Into Themtpartly By The Limitation Of The Number Of' Apprentices, Which At Tends The Exclusive Privilege Of ...

Aptenohytes
Apte.nohytes, In Ornithology, Pen Guin, A Geniis Of The Order Anseres. The Bill Is 'sfraight, Rather Compressed, And Sbarp Along The Edges ; Th,e Upper Mandi Ble Is Obliquely Sulcated,lengthwise ; Feet Palmated, Shackled ; Wings Fin-shaped, And Without Quill-feathers ; Feet Fettered, Four-toed. This Genus Resembles The Alca In ...

Aptera
Aptera, In The Linnwan System Of Zoology, The Seventh And Last Order Of In Sects, The Distinguishing Characteristic Of Which Is, That The Insects Comprehended In It Have No Wings. Of This Order There Are Three Divisions. In A. The Insects Are Distinguished By Having Six Legs; Head Dist;nct From ...

Aquil Aria
Aquil Aria, In Botany, A Large Tree, Affecting A Lofty Situation. Class Mean Dria Monogynia; Cal. Perianth One-leafed, Perinanent ; Tube Bell-shaped; Limb Five Cleft ; Clefts Ovate, Acute, Flat, Spreading ; Cor. None : Nectary One-leafed, Pitcher Shaped, Of The Length Of The Tube Of The Calyx, Half Five-cleft; ...