APTE.NOHYTES, in ornithology, pen guin, a geniis of the order Anseres. The bill is 'sfraight, rather compressed, and sbarp along the edges ; th,e upper mandi ble is obliquely sulcated,lengthwise ; feet palmated, shackled ; wings fin-shaped, and without quill-feathers ; feet fettered, four-toed. This genus resembles the alca in colour, food, stupidity, eggs, nest, posi tions of legs behind the equilibrium, and consequent erect posture. They are to tally- unfit for flight,but swim dexterously; nostrils linear, hid in the groove of the bill, palate as well as the tongue beset with a few rows of conic, retroflected, stiff papillm ; wings covered with a strong broad membrane ; tail short, wedged, the feathers very rigid. There are nine sp eci es according-to Latham, but Gmelin enume rates eleven.
This genus of birds seems to hold the same place in the southern parts of the world as the awks do in the northern, and are by no means to be confotmded the one with the other, however authors may differ in opinion in respect to this matter." The penguin is seen only in the temperate and fiigid zones, on that side of the equator which it frequents ; and the same is observed of the awk in the oppo site latitudes ; ancl neither of the genera has yet been observed within the tropics. The aWk has true wings and quills,thouglt small; the penguin mere fins only, instead of wings. This last has four toes on each foot ; but the former only three. The penguin while swimming, sinks quite above the breast ; the head and neck only appearing out of the water, rowing itself along with its finny wings, as with oars; while the awk, in common with most other birds, swims on the surface. Several other circumstances peculiar to each might be mentioned ; but we trust the above will prove fully sufficient to characterize this genus. The bodies of the penguin tribe are commonly so well and closely covered with feathers, that no wet can penetrate ; and as they are in general excessively fat, these circumstances united secure them from the cold. They have often been found above seven hundred. lea.gues from land ; and frequently on the mountains of ice, on which they seem to ascend without difficulty, as the soles of their feet are very rough, and suited to the pur pose.
A ptenodytes antaretica, is full 25 inches long, and weighs eleven or twelve pounds : it inhabits the south sea from 48° to the antarctic circle, and is frequently found on the ice mountains and islands on which it ascends. It is a numerous tribe ; and they were found in great plenty in the Isle of Deaolation.
The black-footed penguin is found ir the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope, but particularly in Robbean or Pen guin Isles, near Saldanic Bay. Like all the genus, this is an excellent swimmer and diver ; hut hops and flutters in a strange and aukward manner on the land, and, if hurried, stumbles perpetually ; and fre quently runs for some distance like a qua draped, making use of the wings instead of legs, till it can recover its upright posture ; crying out at the same time like a goose, but in a much hoarser voice. It
is said to clamber some way up the rocks in order to make a nest, in doing which it has been observed to be assisted with the bill. The eggs are two, and esteemed at the Cape very delicious.
Aptenodytes chrysocome. This beauti ful species measures twenty-three inches in length. The bill is three inches long ; the colour of it red, with a dark furrow running along on each side to the tip ; the upper mandible is curved at the end, the under obtuse ; irides of a dull red ; the head, neck, back, and sides are black; over each eye a stripe of pale yellow fea thers, which lengthens into a crest be hind, of near four inches in length : the feathers on each side of the head, above this stripe, are longer than the rest, and stand upward, while those of the crest are decumbent, but can be erected'on each side at will ; the wings, or rather fins, are black on the outside, edged with white ; on the inside white; the breast, and all the under parts, white ; the legs are orange : claws dusky. The female has a streak of pale yellow over the eye, but it is not prolonged into a crest behind as in the male. Inhabits Falkland's Islands, and was likewise met with in Kirguelin's Land or Isle of Desolation, as well as at Van Diemen's Land, and New Holland, particularly in Adventure Bay. Are call. ed Hopping Penguins and Jumping Jacks, from their action of leaping quite out of the water, on meeting with the least ob stacle, for three or four feet at least ; and indeed, withoutany seemin cause, do the same frequently, appearingshiefly to ad vance by that means. This species seems to have a greater air of liveliness in its countenance than others, yet is in fact a very stupid bird, so much so, as to suffer itself to be knocked on the head with a stick, when on land. When angered, it erects its crest in a beautiful manner. These birds make their nests among those of the pelican tribe, living in tolerable harmony with them ; and lay seldom more than one egg, which is white, and larger than that of a duck. They are Mostly seen by themselves, seldom mixing with other penguins, and often met with in great numbers on the outer shores, where they have been bred. Are frequently so regardless as to suffer themselves to be taken by the hand. The females of this species lay their eggs in burrows, which they easily form of themselves with their bills, throwing out the dirt with their feet.