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Coach
Coach, A Convenient Carriage Suspend Ed On Four Or More Springs, And Moving On Four Wheels, Originally Intended Fat The Conveyance Of Persons In The Upper Circles Of Society, But Now Beeome So Common As To Stand In Our Streets Plying For Fares. The First Coach Ever Seen In England ...

Coal
Coal, In Mineralogy, A Most Impor Tant Genus Of Mineral Inflammables, In Which Is Included The Carbonaceous And Carbono.bituminous Fossils. In The Excel Lent Dictionary By Messrs. A. And C. Ai Kin, This Genus Is Divided Into The Families Of Brown Coal, Black Coal, And Mineral Carbon. The First, Or ...

Cobalt
Cobalt, In Chemistry, A Metal, When Pure, Of A White Colour, Inclining To Bluish Or Steel Grey. At The Common Tempera Ture Its Specific Gravity Is More Than 8.5. It Is Attracted By The Magnetic Needle, And Is Itself Capable Of Polarity. For Fusion It Requires Nearly The Same Intensi ...

Coccus
Coccus, In Natural History, Agenus Of Insects Of The Order Hemiptera. Generic Character : Snout Pectoral ; Abdomen Bristled Behind : Wings Two, Upright In The Males: Females Wingless. There Are About Fifty Species ; Extremely Fertile And Troublesome In Hot-houses And Green Houses ; The Male Is Very Active ...

Cocos
Cocos, In Botany, A Genus Of The Mo Noecia Hexandria Class And Order. Natu Ral Order Of Palms. Essential Character : Male Calyx Three-parted ; Corolla Three Petalled : Stamens Six; Female Calyx Five Parted ; Corolla Three-petalled : Stigmas Three ; Drupe Coriaceous. There Are Five Species, Of Which ...

Coffin
Coffin, The Case In Which A Dead Body Is Interred ; Usually Made Of Elm, Or Oak. It Consists Of A Bottom, Two Ends, And Two Sides ; The Latter Being Sawed Half Through, At Right Angles With Their Length, So As To Give A Pliancy To The Boards ; ...

Cohesion
Cohesion, One Of The Species Of At Traction, Denoting That Force By Which The Parts Of Bodies Stick Together. This Power Was First Considered By Sir Isaac Newton As One Of The Properties Essential To All Matter, And The Cause Of All That Variety Observed In The Texture Of Different ...

Coin
Coin, Laws Relating To. Counterfeiting The King's Money, Or Bringing False Mo Ney Into The Realm Counterfeit To The Money Of England, Clipping, Washing, Rounding, Filing, Impairing, Diminishing, Falsifying, Scaling, Lightening, Edging, Colouring, Gilding, Making, Mending, Or Having In One's Possession, Any Pun Cheon, Counter Puncheon, Matrix, Stamp, Dye, Pattern, ...

Coin
Coin. Among The Impediments To Commerce, The Greatest, Undoubtedly, Is The Charge Of Conveyance From Place To Place. This Is The Great Obstacle, Which Limits The Exchange Of Commodities From One Extremity Of The World To The Other. Whenever The Charges Of Carriage Arise To Such An Amount As To ...

Coining
Coining, The Art Of Making Money, Which Has Hitherto Been Performed By The Hammer Or The Mill. The First Ope. Rations Are The Mixing And Melting Of The Metal, Because There Is No Species Of Coin Of Pure Gold Or Silver But Re Quires A Quantity Of Alloy. See Alloy. ...

Cold
Cold. When We Leave A Room At The Temperature Of 60°, And Go Into The Air In A Frosty Day At The Temperature Of 30°, We Say It Is Cold; Or When The Hand Is Held In Water At The Temperature Of 100° For A Few Minutes, And Then Sudden ...

College
College Of Physicians, A Corporation Of Physicians In London, Whose Number, By Charter, Is Not To Exceed Eighty. The Chief Of Them Are Called Fellows, And The Next Candidates, Who Fill Up The Places Of Fellows As They Become Vacant By Death, Or Otherwise. Next To These Are The Honorary ...

College_2
College, Gresham, Or Coltras Of Philosophy, A College Founded By Sir Tho Mas Gresham, Who Built The Royal Ex Change, A Moiety Of The Revenue Whereof He Gave In Trust To The Mayor And Com Monalty Of London. And Their Sucessors For Ever, And The Other Moiety To The Com ...

Colony
Colony. A Colony Is A Settlement Formed By The Inhabitants Of Any Nation, In Some Part Of The World Unoccupied By Any Other Civilized Nation. The Mo Tives For Forming Them Have Been Vari Ous. In Colonies There Is Generally Abund Ance Of Good Land ; Hence The Necessaries Of ...

Colorific
Colorific Earths, In Mineralogy, A Class Or Tribe Of Earths, In The Arrangement Of Kirwan, Described By Him As Strongly Staining The Fingers. Of These He Enume Rates Four Families, Viz. Red, Yellow, Black, And Green ; The Red Is The Reddle, Of Dark Cochineal Red Colour, Or Intermediate Be. ...

Colossus
Colossus, A Statue Of Enormous Or Gigantic Size. The Most Eminent Of This Kind Was The Colossus Of Rhodes, One Of The Wonders Of The World, A Brazen Statue Of Apollo, So High, That Ships Passed With Full Sails Betwixt Its Legs. It Was The Work Manship Of Chares, A ...

Colour
Colour, In Calico-printing. The Term Colour In Calico-printing Isapplied Not Only To Those Vegetable, Animal, And Mineral Solutions, Which Impart Their Own Colour To The Cloth On Whichthey Are Applied, But Also Improperly To Those Earthy Or Metallic Solutions, Which, Possessing Little Or No Tingent Properties Themselves, Yet Retain Or ...

Colouring
Colouring Matter. It Has Been Sup. Posed That A Peculiar Proximate Princi Ple Exists In Vegetables, In Which Their Colour Frequently Resides, And Which Has Hence Received The Name Of Colouring Matter. The Colouring Matter Of Vegetables Is Scarcely Ever Found Insulated, But Is Mix Ed Or Combined With Other ...

Colours
Colours. This Very Important Article Includes A Variety Of Matters Of Peculiar Interest To Various Professions, And Re Quiring No Inconsiderable Portion Of Study. We Have Only Seven Natural Colours, Namely, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, And Violet. See Chromatics. The Mathematical Use Ofcolours Is More Immediately Under Our ...

Colours_2
Colours Diaionic, Or Musical Scale Of In The Course Of Sir Isaac Newton's Ex Periments On The Properties Of Light, He Discovered The Remarkable Fact, That The Spectrum Of The Sun's Image, Formed By Refracted Light, Let Into A Darken Ed Room,i S Longitudinally Divided By The Points Sepa Rating ...

Coluber
Coluber, In Natural History, A Genus Of Serpents„ Distinguished By Having Plates On The Body, And Scales On The Under Parts Of The Tail. The Species Of This Ge Nus Are Numerous. Linmeus Describes, Upon The Testimony Of Various Writers, Above Ninety ; And That Number Even Has Been Considerably ...

Columba
Columba, The Pigeon, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Of Passeres. Generic Character : Bill Weak, Straight, Descending Towards The 'tip; Nostrils Oblong, And Almost Covered With A Soft Tumid Membrane ; Tongue Entire; Legs Short, And Generally Red; Toes Divid Ed To Their Origin. ...

Columbium
Columbium, In Mineralogy And Chemistry. Mr. Hatchet, In Examining Some Minerals In The British Museum, Observed One.which Attracted His Atten Tion, From Its Resemblance To Chromate Of Iron. On Analysing It, He Found It To Be Composed Of A Metallic Acid, United With Oxide Of Iron ; And This Acid, ...

Colymbus
Colymbus, The Diver, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order An Seres. Generic Character : Bill Toothless, Subulate, Straight, And Pointed : Throat Toothed; Nostrils Linear ; Legs Fettered. The Guillemot And The Diver Are Included By Gmelin Under One Genus, While Ls Tham Considers Each ...

Comb
Comb, An Instrument Made Of Horn, Ivory, Tortoise-shell, Box, Or Holly-wood, &c. And Useful For Separating And Adjust Ing The Hair, &c. Coma-making. Combs Are Not Only Made For The Purpose Of Cleansing The Hair, But For Ornament : They Are Some Times Set With Brilliant Stones, Pearls, And Even ...

Combination
Combination, Doctrine Of Prob. 1. Any Number Of Quantities Being Given, Together With The Number In Each Com Bination, To Find The Number Of Combina Tions. One Quantity Admits Of No Combi Nation : Two, A And B, Only Of One Combi Nation ; Of Three Quantities, A B C, ...

Combustion
Combustion Of Living Individuals Of The Human Species. Citizen Lair, In 1797, Com Municated To The Philomathic Society At Paris, A Memoir On The Spontaneous Com Bustion Of Human Individuals,of Which In Stances Are Related In The Copenhagen Acts Of 1692; The Annual Register, 1763 And 1775 : The Philosophical ...

Combustion
Combustion. The Temperature Of Bodies May Be Raised By Various Means, Which Are Generally Such As Produce An Agitation Among The Particles. The Sun's Light, And Also The Chemical Or Mechani Cal Actions Of Bodies Upon Each Other, If Sufficiently Intense Or Rapid, Produce This Effect. One Of The Most ...

Comedy
Comedy, A Dramatic Poem, Represent Ing Some Event In Common Life, Which Is Supposed To Take Place Among Private In Dividuals. Its Object Is To Ridicule The Vices And Follies Of Mankind. The Unities Of Action, Time And Place, The Division Of The Acts, The Introduction Of Episodes,the Intermixture Of ...

Commerce
Commerce, The Exchange Of The Na Tural Or Artificial Productions Of A Country For Those Of Another, Either By Barter Or By Representative Signs Of Their Value : The Most General Representative Of The Value Of Other Commodities B Eing Coin Or Bullion, The Profits Of Commerce Are Frequently Es ...

Commissary
Commissary, In The Ecclesiastical Law, An Officer Of The Bishop, Who Exer Cises Spiritual Jurisdiction In Places Of A Diocese So Far From The Episcopal See, That The Chancellor Cannot Call The People To The Bishop's Principal Consistory Court, Without Giving Them Too Much Inconveni Ency. Colitstissenx General Of The ...

Common
Common, Is A Right Of Privilege Which One Or More Persons Claim To Take Or Use, In Some Part Or Portion Of That, Which Another Man's Lands, Waters, Woods, &c. Naturally Produce, Without Having An Ab Solute Property In Such Lands, Woods, Waters, &c. Commoisr Law, That Body Of Rules ...

Common_2
Common Place Book, Among The Learn Ed, Denotes A Register Of What Things Oc Cur Worthy To Be Noted In The Course Of A Man's Study, So Disposed As That, Among A Number Of Subjects, Any One May Be Easily Found. Several Persons Have Their Several Methods Of Ordering Them ...

Company
Company, South Sea. The Scheme For Satisfying The National Deficiencies By The Establishment Of This Company Was Ar Ranged And Brought Forward In 1711, By Mr. Harley, Then Chancellor Of The Ex Chequer, And The Opinion Of Its Efficacy For Retrieving The ]anguishing State Of Public Credit Was So Great, ...

Company
Company, In Commerce, An Associa Tion Formed For Carrying On Some Branch Of Trade Which Requires A Greater Capital Than Private Traders Can Usually Command, Or Which Is Liable To Engagements To Which Individual Responsibility Is Deem Ed Inadequate. In The Infancy Of Com Merce, Almost Every Branch Of Foreign ...

Comparative
Comparative Anatomy, Is The Sci Ence Which Examines The Structure Of The-body In Animals. It Includes, In Its Most Extensive Sense, A View Of The Cor Poreal Organization Of All Classes Of The Animal Kingdom. This Science, Which Is Very Aptly Denominated Comparative Anatomy, Af Fords The Most Essential Aid ...

Comparative Anatomy Anatomy
Anatomy, Comparative Anatomy, And Ffetus. The Bodies Of The Male And Female Pre Sent Very Obvious Differences In Appear Ance And Character, Which Have Been Ascribed To The Influence Of The Genera Tive Organs Upon The Constitution. The Removal Of The Testes In The Male, Pre Vents Those Changes In ...

Comparative Osteology
Comparative Osteology. It Has Been Asserted, That The Bones In Some Instances Have Not Their Ordinary White Colour. Thus The Amedabad Finch, (fringilla Amandava,) And The Golden Pheasant, Have Been Said To Possess Yellow Bones ; But This Is Not True. In The Garpike (esox The Bones Are Green ; ...

Complexion
Complexion, A Term Technically Denoting The Temperament, Habitude, And Natural Disposition Of The Body ; But Popularly Signifying The Colour Of The Face And Skin. Few Subjects Have En Gaged The Attention Of Naturalists More Than The Diversities Among The Human Species, Among Which That Of Colour Is The Most ...

Compound Division
Compound Division. For The Operation Of Which The Rule Is : When The Dividend Only Consists Of Differ Ent Denominations, Divide The Higher De Nomination, And Reduce The Remainder To The Next Lower, Taking In The Given Num Ber Of That Denomination, And Continue The Division. When The Divisor Is ...

Compound Multiplication 1
Compound Multiplication. 1. If The Multiplier Do Not Exceed 12, The Operation Is Performed At Once, Be Ginning At The Lowest Place, Arid Carrying According To The Value Of The Place. Examples. L. 8. D. Cwt. Qr. Lb. 13 .. 6 .. 12 .. 2 .. 8 9 5119 .. ...

Compression
Compression, The Act Of Pressing Or Squeezing Some Matter, So As To Set Its Parts Nearer To Each Other, And Make It Possess Less Space. Water Was, During A Very Long Period, Considered As A Fluid Perfectly Unelastie That Is, Unyielding, Or Incompressible ; And This Opinion Was Corroborated By ...

Concentration
Concentration, In Chemistry, The Act Of Increasing The Strength Of Fluids, Which Are Rendered Stronger By Abstract Ing A Portion Of The Mere Menstruum. This Is Generally Effected By Evaporation, Where The Menstruum Is Driven Off At A Lower Heat Than Is Required To Drive Off The Substance With Which ...

Condiments
Condiments. Although These Are Not Properly Alimentary Matters, Or Such As Become Ingredients In The Composition Of The Animal Fluid, Yet Dr. Cullen Says They Are Taken With Advantage Along With The Proper Aliments, The Digestion And Assimilation Of Which They In Some Degree Modify. They Are Of Two Kinds, ...

Condition
Condition, In Law, A Restraint An Nexed To A Thing, One Of The Terms Upon Which A Grant May Be Made On A Contin Gency, Upon The Happening Of Which The Estate May Be Defeated ; As A Mort Gage Which Is To Cease Upon Payment Of A Certain Sum. ...

Conductors
Conductors, In Electricity, Are Long Metal Rods, Whose Points Are Raised So High As May Be Convenient, Above Houses, &c. For The Purpose Of Attracting Or Re Ceiving The Electric Fluid, And Of Conduct Ing It Into The Earth, Or Into Water, Thereby To Prevent The Building From Being Struck ...

Cone
Cone, Properties Of The. 1. Cones And Pyramids Having The Same Bases And Alti Tudes Are Equal To Each Other. It Is Shewn, That Every Triangular Prism May Be Di Vided Into Three Equal Pyramids, And Therefore That A Triangular 1)2, Ramid Is One-third Of A Prism Standing On The ...

Conic
Conic Sections, As The Name Imports, Are Such Curve Lines As Are Produced By The Mutual Intersection Of A Vlane And The Surface Of A Solid Cone. The, Nature And Properties Of These Figures Were The Subject Of An Extensive Branch Of The An Cient Geometry, And Formed A Speculation ...

Constable
Constable. Lord High Constable, An Ancient Officer Of The Crowns Both Of Eng Land And France, Whose Authority Was So Very Extensive, That The Office Has Been Laid Aside In Both Kingdoms, Except Upon Particular Occasions, Such As The King's Coronation. The Function Of The Constable Of Eng Land Consisted ...

Constitution
Constitution, In Matters Of Policy, Signifies The Form Of Government Estab Lished In Any Country Or Kingdom. The Constitution And Government Of A Country Frequently Differ, Though The Latter Should He Founded On The Former In Every Particular. The Two Terms Are Considered By Some Persons As Synony Mous, But ...

Contagion
Contagion, In Physic, The Commu Nicating A Disease From One Body To Ano Ther. In Some Diseases It Is Only Effected By An Immediate Contact, As In The Syphi Lis ; In Others It Is Conveyed By Infected Clothes ; And In Others It Seems Capable Of Being Transmitted Through ...

Contraction
Contraction, In Physics, The Dimi Nishin5 The Extent Or Dimensions Of A Body, Or The Causing Its Parts To Approach Nearer To Each Other, In Which Sense It Stands Opposed To Dilatation Or Expansion. See Expansion. Water And All Aqueous Fluids Are Gra Dually'contracted By A Diminution Of Tem Perature, ...

Cooper
Cooper, In The Trades, An Artificer Who Makes Casks, Tubs, Barrels, And All Kinds Of Wooden Vessels Which Are Bound Toge Ther With Hoops. This Is Unquestionably A Very Ancient Trade, And Is Referred To 2000 Years Ago By The Writers On Rural Economy In Rome. Their Descriptions Correspond Lb ...

Copal
Copal This Substance„wlich Deserves Particular Attention From Its Importance As A Varnish, And Which, At First Sight, Seems To Belong To A Distinct Class From The Resins, Is Obtained From The Rims Co Pallinum, A Tree Which Is A Native Of North America : But The Best Sort Of Copal ...

Copernicus
Copernicus (nicaokes) In Biogra Phy, Was Born At Thorn; In Prussia, In 1472. Having Acquired, During The Course Of His Education At Cracow, A Fondness For Mathematical Studies, And Particular Ly For Astronomy, He Went To Bologna, To Prosecute These Studies Under An Emi Nent Astronomer Of That University. Here ...

Copper
Copper, In The Arts, Seems To Have Been Known In The Remotest Periods Of Antiquity. It Is Among The First Me Tals Which Was Employed By The Early Nations Of The World; It Is Not One Of The Scarce Metals, Is Easily Extracted From Its Ores, And Not Difficult To ...

Copperas
Copperas Is The Sulphate Of Iron, And Is Commonly Called Green Vitriol. If Sulphuric Acid Be Diluted With Water, And Be Poured Upon Iron, Much Effervescence Will Be Seen : The Metal Will Be Dissolv Ed, And The Solution, When Evaporated, Will Exhibit The Sulphate Of Iron, Or Com Mon ...

Copy
Copy, In A Law Sense, Signifies The Transcript Of Any Original Writing, As The Copy Of A Patent, Charter, Deed, &c. A Common Deed Cannot Be Proved By A Copy Or Counterpart, Where The Original May Be Procured. But If The Deed Be In Rolled, Certifying An Attested Copy Is ...

Coral
Coral. By This Designation We Gene Rally Understand That Substance Of Which A Variety Of Ornaments Are Made, Consi Dering It As A Concrete Substance, And Sup Posing It To Be A Marine Plant. This A As The Opinion Entertained For Centuries, From The Time Even Of Pliny To The ...

Cork
Cork, Is A Substance Analogous To Wood, It Is The Exterior Bark Of A Tree Be Longing To The Genus Oak, Which Grows Wild In The Southern Parts Of Europe. When The Tree Is Fourteen Or Fifteen Years Old It Is Fit To Be Barked, And May Be Done Successively ...

Cork_2
Cork Cutting, Or The Manufacturing Of Corks. This Business, Though It Is Thought One Of The Most Dirty, Is Not One Of The Least Profitable ; It Is Likewise Easy In The Acquirement. The Cork, After Being Press Ed Into Square Pieces, Is Received By The Cork Cutters, And If ...

Corn
Corn Trade. It Is Evidently Desirable In Every Nation, That There Should Be Plen Ty Of The Principal Articles Of Food ; And Likewise That The Money Price Of It Should Be As Low As Possible. The Policy Of Every Country, With Regard To Corn, Should Be Directed To These ...

Corn_2
Corn, In Medicine And Surgery, A Hard Tubercle Like A Flat Wart, Growing In Seve Ral Parts Of The Feet, Especially Upon The Joints Of The Toes. This Disorder Is Attri Buted To The Wearing Of Too Strait Or Nar Row-toed Shoes, Which Never Fail To Pro Duce These Tubercles, ...

Coroner
Coroner, An Ancient Officer Of This Kingdom, So Called Because He Is Wholly Employed For The King And Crown. The Office Of Coroners Especially Concerns The Pleas Of The Crown ; And They Are Conser Vators Of The Peace In The County Where Elected, Being Usually Two For Each Coun ...

Corporation
Corporation, A Body Politic, Or In Corporate, So Called, Because The Persons Or Members Are Joined Into One Body, And Are Qualified To Take And Grant, &c. Cor Porations Are Either Spiritual Or Tempo Ral: Spiritual, As Bishops, Deans, Arch-dea Cons, Parsons, Vicars, &c. Temporal, As Mayor, Commonalty, Bailiff, Burgesses, ...

Corpuscular
Corpuscular Philosophy, That Way Of Philosophising, Which Endeavours To Ex Plain Things, And To Account For The Pheno Mena Of Nature By The Motion, Figure, Rest, Position, &c. Of The Corpuscles, Or The Mi Nute Particles Of Matter. Boyle Reduces The Principles Of The Cor Puscular Philosophy To The Four ...

Corrosive
Corrosive Sublimate, An Old Name For The Oxymuriate Of Mercury, Or, As It Is Called In The Shops, Muriated Mercury. If Muriatic Acid Be Added To The Yellow Sul Phate Of Mercury, Or To The Nitrate Of Mer Cury, Muriate Of Mercury Is Formed, Which Is Soluble In Water, And ...

Corundum
Corundum, In Mineralogy. Though Corundum Appears To Have Been Known To Dr. Woodward, It May Be Said To Have Been First Distinguished From Other Mine Rals By Dr. Black. In 1768, Mr. Berry, Al'apidary In Edinburgh, Received A Box Of It From Dr. Anderson Of Madras. Dr. Black Ascertained That ...

Corvus
Corvus, The Crow, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Picx. Ge Neric Character : Bill Strong, Convex, Sharp Edged ; Nostrils Covered With Brist Ly Feathers Turned Back Over Them ; Tongue Cartilaginous And Divided ; Toes Three Forward And One Backward, The Middle One Joined ...

Corypha
Corypha, In Botany, Appendix Paimee. Natural Order Of Palms. Essential Cha Racter ; Flowers Hermaphrodite, Six Stamened: Spathe Many-leaved ; Corolla Three-petalled; Pistil One ; Berry Globose, Superior, One-seeded; Seed Bony, Globose. There Are Two Species, Viz. C. Umbracu Lifera, Great Fan Palm, And C. Minor ; The Former Of ...

Corypilzena
Corypilzena, The Coryphene, In Na Tural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Or Der Thoracici. Generic Character : Head Sloping Suddenly Downwards, Gill-mem Brane With Five Rays; Dorsal Fin As Long As The Back. There Are 19 Species, Of Which The Principal Is C. Hippuris, The Common Coryphene. These ...

Cotton
Cotton It The Produce Of The Gossy , Plum, A Plant About The Size Of A Currant • Bush, A Native Of The Torrid Zone, Though It Is Produced In Parts Of Turkey, So Far As 44 Or 45 Degrees From The Equator. The Finest Cotton Is Known By The ...

Cotton_2
Cotton • Spinning, The Art Or Process Of Reducing Cotton-wool Into Yarn Or Thread. The Most Simple Method For This Purpose, And The Only One In Use For A Long Time In This Country, Was By The Hand, Upon The Well-known Domestic Ma Chine, Called A One-thread Wheel. But As ...

County
County, In Geography, Originally Sig Nified The Territory Of A Count Er Earl, But Now It Is Used In The Same Sense With Shire. See Shire. England, For The Better Government Thereof, And The More Easy Administration Of Justice, Is Divided Into 52 Counties, Each 1 Whereof Is Subdivided Into ...

Coursing
Coursing, Among Sportsmen, Is Of Three Sorts, Viz. At The Deer, At The Hare, And At The Fox. These Coursings Are With Greyhounds ; For The Deer There Are Two Sorts Of Coursings, The One With The Pad Dock, The Other Either In The Forest Or Purlieu. The Best Method ...