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Foundery
Foundery Of Small Works, Or Casting In Sand. The Sand Used For Casting Small Works Is, At First, Of A Pretty Soft, Yellow Ish, And Clammy Nature : But It Being Ne Cessary To Strew Charcoal Dust In The Mould, It At Length Becomes Of A Quite Black Colour. This ...

Foundery
Foundery Of Statues. The Casting Of Statues Depends On The Due Preparation Of The Pit, The Core, The Wax, The Outer Mould, The Inferior Furnace To Melt Off The Wax, And The Upper To Fuse The Metal. The Pit Is A Hole (lug In A Dry Place, Something Deeper Than ...

Fowling
Fowling, The Art Of Taking Or Killing Birds. It Is Either Practised As An Amuse Ment By Persons Of Rank And Property, And Then Principally Consists In Killing Them With A Light Fire-arm, Called A Fowl Ing-piece, And The Diversion Is Secured To Them By The Game-laws ; Or It ...

Franklin
Franklin, (dn. Benjamin), In Bio Graphy, One Of The Most Celebrated Phi. Losophers And Politicians Of The Eigh Teenth Century, Was Born In Boston, In North America, In The Year 1706, Being The Youngest Of Thirteen Children. His Father Was A Tallow-chandler In Boston, And Young Franklin Was Taken Away ...

Freezing
Freezing. During Congelation Most Of The Gasi Form Fluids, Which May Have Been Con Tained In The Water, Are Separated In The Elastic Form, And Exhibit Bubbles In The Ice, Unless The Congelation May Have Been Gradually Effected From The Bottom, Or One Of The Sides; In Which Case The ...

Freight
Freight, Is The Consideration Money Agreed To Be Paid For The Use Or Hire Of A Ship, Or, In A Larger Sense, The Burthen Of Such Ship. The Freight Is Most Fre Quently Determined For The Whole Voy Age, Without Respect To Time ; Sometimes It Depends On Time ; ...

Fresco
Fresco, In Painting, An Italian Word, Now Universally Adopted, Signifying Paint Ings Performed On The Walls Of Palaces And Churches. There Cannot Be A Doubt, That This Was The Original Method, In Which All Large Subjects Were Done, Kn. Mediatelrafter The, Discovery Of The At Of Expressing Forms And Substances, ...

Friction
Friction, In Mechanics, The Rubbing Of The Parts Of Engines And Machines Against Each Other, By Which Means A Great Part Of Their Effect Is Destroyed. It Is Hardly Possible To Lay Down Gene Ral Rules Concerning The Quantity Of Fric Tion, Since It Depends Upon A Multiplicity Of Circumstances, ...

Fringilla
Fringilla, The Finch, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Passe Res. Generic Character : Bill Perfectly Conic ; Slender Towards The End, And Ex Tremely Pointed. Many Of This Tribe Are Truly Admirable, Both For The Elegance Of Their Plumage, And The Vivacity And Me ...

Frizing
Frizing Of Cloth, A Term In The Woollen Manufacture, Applied To The Foyminglof The Nap Of Cloth, Or Stuff, Into A Number Of Little Hard Burrs Or Prominences,covering Almost The Whole Ground Thereof. Some Cloths Are Only Frized On The Back Side, As Black Cloths ; Others On The Right ...

Frost
Frost, Such A State Of The Atmosphere As Causes The Congelation Or Freezing Of Water Or Other Fluids Into Ice. In The More Northern Parts Of The World, Even Solid Bodies Are Affected By Frost, Though This Is Only Or Chiefly In Consequence Of The Moisture They Contain, Which Being ...

Frustum
Frustum, In Mathematics, A Part Of Some Solid Body Separated From The Rest. The Frustum Of A Cone Is The Part That Remains, When The Top Is Cut Off By A Plane Parallel To The Base ; And Is Other Wise Called A Truncated Cone. The Frus Tum Of A ...

Fuel
Fuel. Dr. Black Divides Fuels Into-. Five Classes ; The First Comprehends The Fluid Inflammable Bodies ; The Second,. Peat Or Turf ; The Third, Charcoal Of Wood; The Fourth, Pit-coal Charred ; And The Fifth, Wood, Or Pit-coal, In A Crude State, And Ca Pable Of Yielding A Copious ...

Fulica
Fulica, Thegallinuk And The Coot, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Grallx. Generic Character : Bill Strong, Thick, And Sloping To The Paint; Upper Mandible Arched Over The Lower At The Edge, And Reaching Far Up The Fore Head : Nostrils Nearly Oval ; Front Bald ...

Fulling
Fulling, The Art Or Act Of Cleansing, Scouring, And Pressing Cloths, Stuffs, And Stockings, To Render Them Stronger, Closer, And Firmer; Called Also Milling. The Full Ing Of Cloths And Other Stuffs Is Performed By A Kind Of Water-mill, Thence Called A Fulling Or Scouring-mill. These Mills, Ex Cept In ...

Funds
Funds, Public, The Taxes Or Other Pub Lic Revenues Appropriated To The Payment Of The Interest Or Principal Of The National Debt. When The Expedient Of Borrowing Large Sums For The Public Service Was First Adopted, It Was Found Necessary To Set Apart And Assign To The Lender The Pro ...

Fungi
Fungi, Mushrooms. The Name Of One Of The Seven Families, Or Tribes, Into Which All Vegetables Are Divided By Linnmus In His "philosophiabotanica." In The Sexual System They Constitute The Fourth Order Of The Class Cryptogamia. It Is The Name Also Of The Fifty-eight Order Ofthe "frag Ments." These Plants ...

Furr
Furr, In Commerce, Signifies The Skin Of Several Wild Beasts, Dressed In Alum With The Hair On, And Used As Part Of Dress, By Magistrates And Others. The Kinds Mostly Made Use Of Are, Those Of The Ermine, Sable, Castor, Hare, Rabbit, &c. It Was Not Till The Later Ages ...

Futus
Futus, In Anatomy, A Term Applied To The Offspring Of The Human Subject, Or Of Animals, During Its Residence In The Ute Rus. The Term Of Ovum Is Applied To The Foetus, With Its Membranes And Placenta Taken Altogether. We Shall Consider, Un Der This Article, The Anatomy Of The ...

Gadus
Gadus, The Cod, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Jugulares. Generic Character : The Head Smooth ; Gill Membrane, Seven-rayed ; Body Oblong, Covered With Deciduous Scales ; Fins All Covered By The Common Skin ; More Than One Dorsal Fin, Of Which The Rays Are ...

Gal Vani
Gal Vani (lawis) A Modern Physio Logist, Who Has Had The Honour Of Giving His Name To A Supposed New Principle In Nature, Was Born In 1737, At Bologna, Where Several Of His Relations Had Distin Guished Themselves In Jurisprudence And Theology. From His Early Youth He Was Much Disposed ...

Gall
Gall, In Natural History, Denotes Any Protuberance Or Tumour, Produced By The Puncture Of Insects On Plants And Trees Of Different Kinds. Galls Are Of Various Forms And Sizes, And No Less Different With Regard To Their Internal Structure. Some Have Only One Cavity, And Others A Number Of Small ...

Galleon
Galleon, In Naval Affairs, A Sort Of Ships.employed In The Commerce Of The West Indies. The Spaniards Send Annual Ly Two Fleets ; The One For Mexico, Which They Call The Flota, And The Other For Peru, Which They Call The Galleons. By A General Regulation Made In Spain, It ...

Galvanism
Galvanism, This Surprising Branch Of Philosophy Has Been Denominated Gal Vanism, From Galvani, An Italian Professor, Whose Experiments Led To Its Discovery. In 1789, Some Time Before He Made The Most Important Discovery, He Was By Ac Cident Led To The Fact, Of Electricity Hav Ing The Property Of Exciting ...

Galvanism 2
Galvanism. 2. The Mechanical Action Of Bodies Up On Each Other Produce Electrical Effects. If Two Metals Or Other Conductors Be Brought Into Contact, And Separated, Or If They Be Pressed Or Rubbed Together, Electric Signs Are Produced ; And The Same Consequences Follow, If One Or Both The Bodies ...

Game
Game. It Is A Maxim Of The Common Law, That Goods Of Which No Person Can Claim Any Property Belong To The King By His Prero;.,ative ; Hence Those Animals Rem Natures, Which Come Under The De Nomination Of Game, Are Styled His Majesty's Game ; And That Which He ...

Gaming
Gaming, Lairs Of. These Are Found Ed On The Doctrine Of Chances. See Chance. M. De Moivre, In A Treatise "de Men. Sura Sortis," Has Computed The Variety Of Chances In Several Cases That Occur In Gaming, The Laws Of Which May Be Under Stood By What Follows : Suppose ...

Gaol
Gaol, Gaols Cannot Now He Erected By Any Less Authority Than An Act Of Par Liament. All Prisons And Goals Belong To The King, Although A Subject May Have The Custody, Or Keeping Of Them. 'the Justices Of The Peace At Their General Quarter-sessions, Or The Major Part Of Them, ...

Garden
Garden. We Must Divide This Arti Cle Under Four Heads ; Viz. The Flower, Or Pleasure Garden, The Kitchen Garden, The Nursery, And The Forcing Department. Of These We Shall Treat Distinctly Under The Head Of Gaudening. In This Place It Is Proper To State, That A Garden Should Have ...

Gardening
Gardening Being A Science Of The Utmost Importance To The Community At Large, Is Followed By Many Persons With Considerable Advantage To Themselves. Indeed, What Is Called Market-gardening Is A Medium Between Private Horticulture And That Part Of Farming Which Relates To The Production Of Green Crops. We Shall In ...

Garnet
Garnet, In Mineralogy, Is A Species Efthe Flint Genus, Of Which There Are Two Sub-species, Vir. The Precious, And Com Mon Garnet. The Precious, Or Oriental, Garnet Is Red, But Of Various Shades ; It Occurs Seldom Massive, More Often Dis Seminated, And In Original Roundish Grains -and Small Pieces. ...

Garter
Garter, Order Of The, A Military Order Of Knighthood, The Most Noble And Ancient Of Any Lay Order In The World, Instituted By King Edward Iii. This Order Consists Of Twenty-six Knights-companions, Gene Rally Princes Andpeers, Whereof The King Of England Is The Sovereign, Or Chief. They Are A College ...

Gauging
Gauging, Is The Art Of Ascertaining The Contents Of Casks, Vats, And Other Re Gularly Formed Vessels, Either In Wine Measure, Which Leas 231 Cubic Inches To The Gallon ; In Ale Measure, Whioh Has 282 To The Gallon ; Or In Corn Measure, Which Has 2150.42 Cubic Inches To ...

Gem Ma
Gem Ma, In Botany, A Bud, A Compen Dium Of A Plant Seated Upon The Stem And Branches, And Covered With Scales, In Or Der To Defend The Tender Rudiments In Closed From Cold, And Other External Inju Ries, Till, Their Parts Being Unfolded, They Acquire Strength, And Render Any ...

Gemma
Gemma (remus.), A Learned Dutch Physician And Mathematician In The Six Teenth Century, Was Born At Dockum, In Friesland, In The Year 1508. He Was Edu Cated To The Medical Science, Of Which He Became A Professor In The University Of Louvain. But He Was Particularly Eminent For His Proficiency ...

Gems
Gems Certain Stones, Which, On Ac Count Of Their Hardness, Transparency, And Beauty, When Cut And Polished, Are Highly Esteemed, And, From Their Small Size And Scarcity, Are Valued At Very Consi Derable Price. The Gems Have Been Plac Ed Among The Siliceous Fossils, As In Some Measure Allied With ...

Geniometry
Geniometry, A Method Of Measur Ing Angles With A Pair Of Compasses, And That Without Any Scale Whatever, Except An Undivided Semicircle. Thus, Having Any Angle Drawn Upon Paper To Be Mea Sured; Produce One Of The Sides Of The Angle Backwards Behind The Angular Point; Then With A Pair ...

Genus
Genus, Among Metaphysicians And Logicians, Denotes A Number Of Beings, Which Agree In Certain General Properties, Common To Them All ; So That A Genus Is An Abstract Idea, Expressed By Some Ge Neral Name Or Term. A Genus Is An Assemblage Of Several Species : That Is, Of Several ...

Genus Lymnma
Genus Lymnma. Shells Subovate, Oblong, Or Somewhat Tapering. Aperture Entire, Longitudinal. Ly Oblong, The Right Lip Joined To The Left At The Base, And Folding Back On The Pillar. Observ. These Shells, As Well As Those Of The Preceding Genus, Were Placed By Linnzus With His Helices, But They Offer ...

Genus Polypii Emus
Genus Polypii Emus, Moilif. (acatiinia. Lamarck.) Shell Oblong ; Aperture Much Longer Than Broad, Perpendicular And Parallel To The Column ; Lip Not Reflected ; Columella Gradually Incurved Towards The Tip ; Tip Truncated. P. Glans. This Shell Furnished De Montfort With The Type Of His Genus Po Lyphemus ...

Geography
Geography, Is That Science Whiclk Exhibits The Results Of Our Investigations Respecting The Planet We Inhabit, Whether We Consider Its Figure And The Disposition Of The Lands And Water Upon Its Surface, Or The Subdivisions Which The Different Nations Who Inhabit It Have Made, By Which It Is Considered As ...

Geology
Geology Has For Its Object The Struc Ture And Formation Of This Globe : It, Of Course, Embraces The Consideration Of The Materials Of Which It Is Composed, And The Circumstances Peculiar To Its Original For Mation, As Well As The Different States Tin Der Which It Has Existed, And ...

Geometry
Geometry, In Its Original Sense, Re Lated Simply To The Measurement Of The Earth, And Was Invented By The Egypti Ans, Whose Lands Being Annually Inundat Ed, Required To Be Frequently Measured Out To The Respective Owners, So That Each Might Repossess His Property. It Seems Probable, That In The ...

Germination
Germination. When A Seed Is Placed In A Situation Favourable To Vege Tation, It Very Soon Changes Its Appear Ance ; The Radicle Is Converted Into A Root, And Sinks Into The Earth ; The Plumnla Rises Above The Earth, And Becomes The Trunk Or Stem. When These Changes Take ...

Gilding
Gilding, Art Of. The Art Of Gilding, Or Of Laying A Thin Superficial Coating Of Metal On Wood, Metal, And Other Sub Stances, Has Been Long Practised And Highly Esteemed, Both For Its Utility, And The Splendid Effect Which It Produces. Geld, From The Extreme Beauty Of Its Colour, And ...

Glaciers
Glaciers. Those Vast Piles Of Eter Nal Ice, With Which It Has Pleased The Au Thor Of Nature To Crown The Immense Chasms Between The Summits Of The Alps, Objects More Grand, Sublime, And Terrific, Than Are Any Others Of The Phenomena Of Nature Which Remain Stationary. These Tremendous Spires ...