GEM MA, in botany, a bud, a compen dium of a plant seated upon the stem and branches, and covered with scales, in or der to defend the tender rudiments in closed from cold, and other external inju ries, till, their parts being unfolded, they acquire strength, and render any further protection unnecessary. Buds, together with bulbs, which are a species of buds, generally seated upon or near the root, constitute that part of the herb, by Lin naais called hybernacula ; thatis, the win ter quarters of the future vegetable, as it is during that severe season that the ten der rudiments are protected in the man ner just mentioned. Plants, considered in analogy to animals, may properly enough be reckoned both viviparous and ovipa rous. Seeds are the vegetable eggs ; buds, living foetuses, or infant plants, which re new the species as certainly as the seed. In general, we may distinguish three kinds of buds ; that containing the flow er, that containing the leaves, and that containing both flower 'and leaves. The first contains the rudiments of one or se veral flowers folded over one another, and surrounded with scales. In several trees, this kind of bud is commonly found at the extremity of certain small branches, which are shorter, rougher, and 'less gar nished with leaves than the rest. The ex ternal scales of this species of bud are harder than the internal; both are fur nished with hairs, and in general more swelled than those of the second sort.
The bud containing the flower, too, is commonly thicker, shorter, almost square, less uniform, and less pointed, being ge nerally terminated obtusely. The second species of bud contains the rudiments of several leaves which are variously folded over one another, and outwardly sur rounded by scales, from which the small stipulx that are seated at the foot of the young branches are chiefly produced. These }Axis are commonly more pointed than the former sort. In the hazle-nut, however, they are perfectly round; and in horse-chesnut very thick. The third sort of bud is smaller than either of the preceding, and produces both flowers and leaves,though not always in the same man ner. Sometimes the flowers and leaves are unfolded at the same time. Thig mode of the flower and leaf-bud admits of the following distinctions from the sex of the flowers so produced with the leaves : male flower and leaf-buds as in the pine and fir tree; female flower and leaf buds as in bazle-nut and horn-bean ; hermaphrodite flower and leaf-buds as in the elm-tree, comel-tree, mezereon, and almond tree.