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Injunction

ink, law, writing, time, common and iron

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INJUNCTION, in law, is a prohibitory writ, restraining a person from commit doing a thing which appears to be against equity and conscience. An in junction is usually granted for the pur pose of preserving property in dispute pending a suit ; as to restrain the defen dant from proceedings at the common law against the plaintiff, or from com mitting waste, or doing any injurious act. Injunctions issue out of the courts of equity in several instances : the most usual injunction is to stay proceedings at law; as if one bring an action at law against another, and a bill be brought to be re. lieved either against a penalty, or to stay proceedings at law, on some equitable circumstances, of which the party cannot have the benefit at law. In such case the plaintiff in equity may move for an in junction, either upon an attachment, or praying a dedimus, or praying a farther time to answer ; for it being suggested in the bill, that the suit is against con science, if the defendant be in contempt for not answering, or pray time to answer, it is contrary to conscience to proceed at law in the mean time, and therefore an injunction is granted of course ; but this injunction only stays execution touching the matter in question, and there is al ways a clause giving liberty to call for a plea to proceed to trial, and for want of it to obtain judgment ; but execution is stayed till answer, or farther order. The methods of dissolving injunctions are va rious.

INK, common writing. The preparation of common writing ink is a subject of great importance in technical chemistry. A good ink is of a proper consistence to flow freely from the pen, of a full deep black, so permanent as to remain for a number of years without materially fad ing or becoming illegible, dries very soon after writing with it, and does not consi derably corrode or soften the pen. The basis of all the common writing inks is the fine black, or dark blue precipitate, formed by the addition of vegetable as tringents and particularly the soluble part of the gall-nut, to a solution of iron, generally the sulphate. But as this, if

diffused in water alone, would subside in a short time, and leave the supernatant liquor nearly without colour, the precipi tate is kept suspended, by thickening the water with gum arabic, or any other gum mucilage, which also gives the ink the due consistence, and enables it to trace a fine stroke on the paper, without run ning. These materials, therefore, that is, gall-nuts, green vitriol, (sulphate of iron) gum arabic, and water, are all that are necessary for the composition of ink ; and if they are of good quality, and pro perly proportioned to each other, every other addition usually made adds very little to its perfection.

It is not well ascertained how soon the present kind of writing ink came into use. It has certainly been employed for many centuries in most European countries ; but the ancient Roman inks were, for the most part, of a totally different composi tion, being made of some vegiAable car bonaceous matter like lamp-black diffus ed in a liquor. The Chinese, and many of the inks used by the Oriental nations, are still of this kind.

On the subject of the common writing ink, Dr. Lewis (" Commerce of Arts") has so full and so accurate an investiga tion, and his experiments are so simple and well devised, that little else can be added to the subject in a technical point of view. For a fuller chemical inquiry into the nature of the atramentous preci pitate, the reader is referred to the arti cles GALLIC Aria and IRON.

Dr. Lewis first endeavoured to ascer tain the best proportion between the galls and the sulphate of iron, to render the ink permanent ; for it is to be observed, that with almost any proportions, if the entire quantity be sufficient, the ink will be fine and black at first ; but many of these inks, if kept for some time, espe cially exposed to light and air, will grow brown and fade, and the letters made with it will become nearly illegible.

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