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Inflammation
Inflammation, In Chemistry, Is Combus Tion Attended With Flame : Under The Arti Cle Combustion, We Have Referred To The Spontaneous Inflammation Of Certain Bo Dies, In Peculiar Circumstances, And Like Wise To The Combustion Of Living Individu Als In The Human Species. We Shall In This Place Mention Some ...

Information
Information, In Law, May Be De Fined An Accusation Or Complaint Exhibit Ed Against A Person For Some Criminal Of Fence. It Differs Principally From An In Dictment In This, That An Indictment Is An Accusation Found By The Oath Of Twelve Men, But An Information Is Only The Alle ...

Inheritance
Inheritance, In Law, Is A Perpetuity In Lands Or Tenements To A Man And His Heirs ; And The Word Inheritance, Is Not Only Intended Where A Man Has Lands Or Tenements By Descent, But Also Every Fee Simple, Or Fee-tail, Which A Person Has By Purchase, May Be Said ...

Injunction
Injunction, In Law, Is A Prohibitory Writ, Restraining A Person From Commit Doing A Thing Which Appears To Be Against Equity And Conscience. An In Junction Is Usually Granted For The Pur Pose Of Preserving Property In Dispute Pending A Suit ; As To Restrain The Defen Dant From Proceedings ...

Inns
Inns And Innkeeper.. If One Who Keeps A Common Inn Refuse Either To Re Ceive A Traveller As A Guest Into His House, Or To Find Him Victuals Or Lodging, Upon His Tendering A Reasonable Price For Them, He Is Not Only Liable To Render The Da Mages For The ...

Inrollment
Inrollment, In Law, Is The Register. Ing, Recording, Or Entering In The Rolls Of The Chancery, King's Bench, Common Pleas, Or Exchequer, Or By The Clerk Of The Peace In The Records Of The Quarter Sessions, Ofany Lawful Act ; A Statute Or Recognizance Acknowledged, A Deed Of Bargain And ...

Insects
Insects, In Natural History. We Have, Under The Article Entomology, Given An Account Of The Linnzean System Of This Department Of Natural History. We Shall, In This Place, Enumerate Some Of Those Circumstances Which Form The Line Of Distinction Between Insects And Other Animals. Insects Are Not Furnish Ed With ...

Inspiration
Inspiration, Among Divines, &c. Im Plies The Conveying Of Certain Extraordi Nary And Supernatural Notices Or Motions Into The Mind ; Or It Denotes Any Superna Tural Influence Of God Upon The Mind Of A Rational Creature, Whereby He Is Formed To Any Degree Of Intellectual Improve Ments, To Which ...

Insurance
Insurance, Marine. Insurance Is A Contract Of Indemnity, Whereby The Party, In Consideration Of A Stipulated Sum, Un Dertakes To Indemnify The Other Against Certain Specific Perils Or Risks To Which He Is Exposed, Or Against The Occurrence Of Such Events. The Party Who Takes On Himself The Risk, Is ...

Insurances
Insurances, Risks Against Which May Be Made. Insurances May Be Made Against All The Risks Or Perils Which Are Incident To Sea Voyages, Subject, However, To Cer Tain Exceptions, Founded In Public Policy And The Interests Of Humanity, Which Re Quire, That In Certain Cases Men Shall Not Be Permitted ...

Intelligence
Intelligence, In A Military Sense, May Be Variously Applied, And Of Course Has Different Significations. No General Can Be Said To Be In Any Degree Qualified Forth E Important Situation Which He Holds, Unless, Like An Able Minister Of State, He Be Constantly Prepared With The Requisite Means To Obtain ...

Interest
Interest, Compound, Is Allowing Inter Est Upon Interest, Or Adding The Interest As It Becomes Due To Its Principal, And Considering The Whole As A New Principal, Bearing Interest At The Name Rate As Be Fore. Let R Now Represent The Amount Of One Pound In One Year, That Is, ...

Interest
Interest, An Allowance Or Compen Sation For The Loan Or Use Of A Sum Of Mo Ney For A Certain Time, According To A Fix Ed Rate Or Proportion. The Rate Of Inter Est Varies In Difl'erent Countries, And At Different Times, According To The Scarcity Or Plenty Of Money, ...

Invention
Invention, Denotes The Act Of Find Ing Any Thing New,or Even The Thing Thus Found. Invention Is, According To Lord Bacon, Of Two Very Different Kinds, The One Of Arts And Sciences, The Other Of Ar Guments And Discourse : The Former He Sets Down As Absolutely Deficient. That The ...

Involution
Involution. If A Quantity Be Conti Nually Multiplied By Itself, It Is Said To Be Involved Or Raised; And The Power To Which It Is Raised Is Expressed By The Number Of Times The Quantity- Has Been Employed In The Multiplication. Thus, Axa, Or A', Is Called The Setond Power ...

Iridium
Iridium. Mr. Tennant, On Examining The Black Powder Left After Dissolving Pla Tina, Which, From Its Appearance, Had Been Supposed To Consist Chiefly Of Plumbago, Found It Contained Two Distinct Metals, Never Before Noticed, Which He Has Named Iriclaurn And Osmium. The Former Of These Was Observed Soon After By ...

Iron
Iron Is A Metal Of A Bluish White Co Lour, Of Considerable Hardness And Elasti City ; Very Malleable, Exceedingly Cious And Ductile, And Of A Moderate Spe Cific Gravity Among Metallic Substances. It Is Much Disposed To Rust By The Access Of Air, Or The Action Of Water, In ...

Irreducible
Irreducible Case, In Algebra, Is Used For That Case Of Cubic Equations, Where The Root, According To Cordon's Rule, Appears Under An Impossible Or Imaginary Form, And Yet Is Real. Thus, In The Equation, X3 — 90 100 = 0, The Root, According To Cordon's Rule, Will Be X = ...

Irrigation
Irrigation Is The Art Of Conducting Water At Pleasure Over Levels Or Inclined Planes, In Such Manner That The Whole May Receive The Benefit Of Partial Immer Sion ; Whereby The Surface May Be Duly Supplied With Moisture,and The Vegetable Productions Intended To Be Encouraged, Should Be Enabled To Put ...

Irritability
Irritability, In Physiology, Is The Property Peculiar To The Muscles, By Which They Contract Upon The Applica Tion Of Certain Stimuli, Without A Consci Ousness Of Action. Haller And Other Phy Siologists Denominate That Part Of The Hu Man Body Irritable, Which Becomes Short Er By Being Touched : Very ...

Iser1ne
Iser1ne, In Mineralogy, A Species Of The Menachine Genus : It Is Of An Iron Black, Inclining A Little To The Brownish Black ; It Occurs In Small, Obtuse, Angular Grains, And In Rolled Pieces, With A Rough Glimmering Surface. Internally It Is Glis Tering., And Its Lustre Is Semi-metallic. ...

Isinglass
Isinglass, Used In Medicine And Do Mestic Economy, Is A Preparationformerly Made Only From A Fish Named Huso, A Spe Cies Of The Accipenser Genus. We Have, In The Sixty-third Volume Of The Transactions Of The Royal Society, A Full Account Of The Mode Of Preparing This Substance, Of Which ...

Isoperimetrical
Isoperimetrical Figures, In Geo• Metry, Are Such As Have Equal Perimeters Or Circumferences. Isoperimetrical Lines And Figures Have Greatly Engaged The Attention Of Mathe• Maticians At All Times. The Fifth Book Of Pappus's Collections Is Chiefly Upon This Subject ; Where A Great Variety Of Curious And Important Properties Are ...

Ittria
Ittria. This Earth Was Discovered By Gadolin, A Swedish Chemist, In A Fossil, Found At Ytterby, In Sweden, Which Has Since Received The Name Of Gadolinite, And In Which It Is Combined With Silex And Lime. The Discovery Was Confirmed By Ekeberg, Klaproth, And Vauquefin ; And The Same Earth ...

Iviceron
Iviceron (joint Feaxcis,) In Bio Graphy, A French Monk And Inge Nious Mathematician In The Seventeenth Century, Was Born At Paris, In The Year 1613. He Early Displayed A Love Of Learn Ing, And By The Progress Which He Made In His Elementary Studies, Afforded Fair Promise Of Future Excellence. ...

Ixia
Ixia, In Botany, A Genus Of The Trian Dria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Ensatz. Iridcs, J Ussieu. Essen Tial Character : Corolla One-petalled, Tubu Lar; Tube Straight, Filiform ; Border Six Parted, Bell-shaped, Regular ; Stigmas Three Or Six, Simple. There Are Fifly-four Species. Ixia Differs From ...

J Borelli
Borelli, (j. Atenonso) A Celebrat Ed Philosopher And Mathematician, Born At Naples-the 28th Of January, 1608. He Was Professor Of Philosophy And Mathe Matics In Some Of The Most Celehra- Ed Universities Of Italy, Particularly At Flo Rence And Pisa, Where He Became Highly In Favour With The Princes Of ...

Jansenists
Jansenists, In Church History, A Sect Of The Roman Catholics In France, Who Follow The Opinions Of Jansenius, Bishop Of Ypres, And Doctor Of Divinity Of The Universities Of Louvain And Douay, In Relation To Grace And Predestination. In The Year 1640, The Two Universities Just Mentioned, And Particularly Father ...

Jasper
Jasper, In Mineralogy, A Species Of The Clay Genus, Divided By Werner Into Six Sub-species, Viz. The Egyptian, The Striped, The Porcelain, The Common, The Agate, And The Opal Jasper. The Egyptian Jasper Exhibits Two Or More Colours In Concentric Zones Or Bands, More Or Less Regular, With Interspersed Spots ...

Jesuits
Jesuits, In Church History, Or The So Ciety Of Jesus, A Celebrated Religious Or Der In The Romish Church, Founded By Ig Natius Loyola, A Spaniard, Who, In The Year 1738, Assembled Ten Of His Companions, At Rome, And Proposed To Form A New Or Der, When It Was Agreed ...

Jews
Jews, In Church History, The Descen Dants Of Judah, The Son Of Jacob, And Of The Israelites, Commonly Denominated The Twelve Tribes Of Israel. This Name Was First Given To Those Jews Who Returned From The Captivity Of Babylon, Because The Tribe Of Judah Made The Most Conspicu Ous Figure ...

Joint Stock Companies
Joint Stock Companies. About The Time Of The Famous Mississippi Scheme In France, And The South Sea Scheme In Eng Land, There Arose A Sort Of Epidemic Fever Of Speculation, And Every One Was Anxious To Join In Some Partnership, For Carrying On Speculations In Foreign Commerce Or Domestic Trade, ...

Joints
Joints. Consfruction A/ A Joint—the Opposed Surfat.es Of Hones, Whiell Form Joints, Arc Covered By A Thin Crust Of Cartilage, Most Exquisitely Smooth And Polished. Hence They Move On Each Other, In Whatever Di. Rection Their Structure Admits, Without Any Hindrance From Friction. They Are Tied Together By Strong And ...

Jones
Jones (nino), An Eminent Architect, Was The Son Of A Clothworker In London, And Was Born In That City About 1572. Scarcely Any Thing Is Known Of The Man Ner In Which He Passed His Early Years, But It Is Probable That He Enjoyed Few Ad Vantages Of Education, And ...

Journal
Journal, At Sea, Is A Register, Kept By The Pilot And Others, Wherein Notice Is Taken Of Every Thing That Happens To The Ship From Day To Day, With Regard To The Winds, The Rhumbs, The Rake, Soundings, &c. And In Order To Enable Him To Adjust The Reckoning, And ...

Juglans
Juglans, In Botany, -walnut Tree, A Ge Nus Of The Monoecia Polyandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Amentacex. Terebintacex, Jussieu. Essential Cha Racter: Male, Calyx One-leafed, Scale Form ; Corolla Six-parted Filaments Eigh Teen ; Female, Calyx Four-cleft, Superior ; Corolla Four-parted ; Styles Two; Drupe With A Grooved ...

Julian
Julian Period, In Chronology, A Sys Tem Or Period Of 7980 Years, Found By Multiplying The Three Cycles Of The Sun, Moon, And Indiction, Into One Another. See Curoxoloc Y. This Period Was Called The Julian, Not Because Invented By Julius Cxsar ; Since The Julian Epochs Was Not Received ...

Julus
Julus, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Aptera. Lip Cre Nate, Marginate; Antenna: Moniliform ; Two Feelers, Filiform ; Body Long, Semi Cylindrical, Consisting Of Numerous Trans Verse Segments ; Legs Numerous, Twice As Many On Each Side As There Are Segments Of The Body. There ...

Jury
Jury, A Certain Number Of Persons Sworn To Inquire Of And Try Some Mat Ter Of Fact, And To Declare The Truth Upon Such Evidence As Shall Be Laid Before Them. The Jury Are Sworn Judges Up On All Evidence In Any Matter Of Fact. Juries May Be Divided Into ...

Justices
Justices Of The Peace, Are Persons Ap Pointed By The King's Commission, To At Tend To The Peace Of The County Where They Dwell. They Were Called Guardians Of The Peace Till The Thirty-sixth Year Of Edw. Hi. C. 12, Where They Are Called Jus Tices. A Justice Of The ...

Kamsin
Kamsin, The Name Of A Hot Southerly Wind, Common In Egypt. The Wind Is Said To Prevail More Or Less For Fifty Days, Hence It Is Called " The Wind Of Fifty Days." Travellers, Who Have Experienced The Ef Fect Of It, Have Described It As A Poison Ous Wind. ...

Kidnapping
Kidnapping, Is The Forcibly Taking And Carrying Away A Man, Woman Or Child, From Their Own Country, And Sending Them To Another. This Is An Offence At Com Mon Law, And Punishable By Fine, Impri Sonment, And Pillory. By Statute 11 And 12 William Ill, C. 7, If Any Captain ...

King
King At Arnm, Lton, For Scotland, Is The Second King At Arms For Great Bri Tain ; He Is Invested And Solemnly Crown Ed. Ile Publishes The King's Proclamations, Marshals Funerals, Reverses Arms, Ap Appoints Messengers At Arms, &c. See Co X.lege Of Heralds. King's Bench. The King's Bench Is ...

King
King Of England. The Executive Power In England Is Vested In A Single Person By Immemorial Usage, To Whom The Care Of The People Is Entrusted, And To Whom, Therefore, Allegiance Is Due. Formerly, The Succession Being Interrupt Ed, There Was Occasionally A Distinction Between A Rightful King, Or King ...

Knight
Knight, In Military Concerns. This Word Is An Anglicism Of The German Word Kneckt, Signifying A Person Possessing The Talents And Bravery Of A Soldier, And Re Warded For Some Particular Acts Of Cou Rage And Address By The Sovereign. Knights, Or Equites, In The Roman Art Of War, Were ...

Knights
Knights' Service, This Species Of Servi Tude Was The Consequence Of The Weak Ness And Decay Of The Feodal System Throughout Europe, And Was Invented As A Remedy. Fiefs, Which Had Previously Been Held For Long Terms Of Years, Were Made Hereditary, And The Holder Was Com Pelled To Afford, ...

Knights_2
Knights' Tempters. This Order Has Been Suppressed For Many Centuries, But As They Were Once Considered A Very Pow Erful Body, And Had Large Possessions In England, Of Which The Extensive And Valuable Domain, Still Known By The Name Of The Temple, In London, Was A Part, A Slight Sketch ...

Knights_3
Knights Of St. John Of Jerusalem. The Order Of St. John Originated From The Es Tablishment Of An Hospital At Jerusalem, In The Year 1048, By Certain Italian Mer Chants, For The Reception Of Pilgrims And Travellers, Which They Dedicated To The Baptist. The Subsequent Conquest Of Jerusalem, By Godfrey ...

La Rva
La Rva, In Natural History. The Larva State Of Insects, In General, Denotes Cater Pillars Of All Kinds. The Caterpillar State Is That Through Which Every Butterfly Must Pass Betbre It Arrives At Its Perfec And Beauty. The Change From Caterpillar To Butter Fly Was Long Esteemed A Sort Of ...

Laboratory
Laboratory. The Consideration Of What Happens To The Parts Of Bodies, In Consequence Of Their Elective Attractions, Constitutes The Most Difficult Part Of The Science, Whe Ther The Mind Be Employed In Developing The Facts, Or In Deducing The General Theory Which May Be Indicated From Them, It Is, Therefore, ...

Labyrinth
Labyrinth, In Gardening, A Winding Mazy Walk Between Hedges, Through A Wood Or Wilderness. The Chief Aim Is To Make The Walks So Perplexed And Intri Cate That A Person May Lose Himself In Them, And Meet With As Great A Number Of Disappointments As Possible. They Are Rarely To ...

Lacerta
Lacerta, The Lizard, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Amphibia, Of The Order Reptiles. Generic Character: Body Four Footed, Tailed, Naked And Long, Having No Secondary Integument ; Legs Equal. There Are, According To Gmelin, Eighty-one Spe Cies, Of Which The Following Are Princi Pally Deserving Of Attention. L. ...

Ladders
Ladders, Scaling, In The Military Art, Are Used In Scaling When A Place Is To Be Taken By Surprise. They Are Made Several Ways; Sometimes Of Flat Staves, So As To Move About Their Pins And Shut Like A Parallel Ruler, For Conveniently Carrying Thein : The French Make Them ...

Lake
Lake. On Many Occasions It Is Of Importance To Employ An Ink Indestructible By Any Process, That Will Not Equally Destroy The Material On Which It Is Applied. Mr. Close Has Recommended For This Purpose, 25 Grains Of Copal In Powder Dissolved In 200 Grains Of Oil Of Lavender, By ...

Lamp
Lamp, Argand's. This Is A Very Inge Nious Contrivance, And The Greatest Im Provement In Lamps That Has Yet Been Made. It Is The Invention Of A Citizen Of Geneva ; And The Principle On Which The Superiority Of The Lamp Depends Is, The Admission Of A Larger Quantity Of ...

Lamp Yris
Lamp Yris, In Natural History,frefiy, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Coleoptera. Antenna; Filiform ; Four Feelers; Shells Flexile ; Thorax Flat, Semi-orbicular, Sur Rounding And Concealing The Head ; Seg Ments Of The Abdomen Terminating In Folded Papillze: Female Usually Apterous. There Are Nearly Sixty Species, In Four ...

Language 1
Language. 1. Man, It Has Frequent Ly Been Said, Is The Only Animal Possessed Of Speech, And If We Use This Term As Im Plying The Expression Of A Train Of Ideas By Articulate Sounds, It May Perhaps Be Esteemed The Best Criterion Of Distinction Between Man And The Inferior ...