LOCAL A reference to the nosologicol table of the system we have selected in this work will prove this class to be of a very vo luminous, as well as of a very complicated nature : and, as we have already observed, intended to take in every disease which could not easily be introduced under the preceding classes. More than half the maladies of which this class consists be long to the department of surgery ; such as, for instance, all the genera in the or der Tumores, and many of those in the order Dialyses. Of the rest, many are altogether incurable, and many may more conveniently be described under the arti cle Miawirsay. On this account, instead of giving a detail of the entire genera of which the present class consists, with their definitions and modes of treatment, we shall refer the reader to the previous table for their respective names and as rangements ; and shall only select, for further remark, those that appear of more prominence andgeneral importance than the rest, and which can only with propriety be described in the present ar ticle.
Ana:wane, loss of sight, without visi ble cause or injury. In this disease the eyes appear natural; but the pupil is di lated, and does not contract upon being exposed to the strongest light : it is some times attended with head-ach. The re mote causes are, compression of the brain, eitherfrom congestion or mechanicalpres sure ; cataract; stony ; paralysis of the optic nerve, or irritability of it. The proximate cause is the insensibility of the retina If the disease arise from the first mentioned cause, it may be removed by the means necessary in those cases: when it arises from atony, or paralysis of the optic nerves, we must employ stimulants, as blisters to the temples ; electricity is of singlular service ; sparks should be ta ken from the eyes, and shocks should be sent through the head ; errhines will be very useful, as turbeth mineral, in the proportion of a grain to eight of liquorice powder, one fourth of which is to be snuffed up the nostrils once or twice a day ; and we must at the same time em ploy the internal stimulants recommend ed in the treatment of paralysis: opium and muriated mercury, in doses of a quarter of a grain of each twice a day, a blister on the crown of the head, and repeated minute electric shocks, passed through the eyes, are recommended in the early stages of this disease. The cataract, as requiring a surgical opera tion, does not properly come under con sideration.
Jilbugo, or opacity of the transparent cornea, which often remains after inflam mation or syphilis, may sometimes be re moved by repeated blisters on the tem ples. The long continued use of elec tricity, and the aqua ammoniareti cupris, should be introduced into the eye, and it will sometimes require dilution ; or pre pared glass reduced to an impalpable powder in a-mortar of agate, and mixed with honey or mucilage, is to be applied to the eyes, by means of a camel hair pencil, two or three times a day. The
linimentum sepia compositum, and infu sion of Guinea peppef, are recommend ed in strong terms, and are certainly de serving of a trial.
Of deafneu the causes are innumerable. It may be a defect in the organ of hear ing, too great dryness of the ear, harden wax obstructing the pas sage of sounds ; inflammation of the mem brane tympani ; inflammation or obstruc tion of the eustachian tubes ; syphilis : and stony, or paralysis of the auditory nerves. When it arises in consequence of organic affection, all our endeavours will generally prove fruitless ; but when it arises from obstruction of the eusta chian tube, it will be commonly removed by puncturing the membrane tympani : if from too great dryness of the ear, a few drops of a mixture composed of half an °MCC of oil of almonds and forty drops of oil of turpentine is recommended. It should be applied to the internal ear by means of a dossil of cotton, taking care to keep the cavity clean, by wiping it daily with a large camel hair pencil. If it arise from hardened wax, the interior cavity must be softened by frequently in jecting warm water and soap, or a solu tion of sea-salt in as much water as will barely dissolve it, which last is an excel lent solvent of the wax. The ear may afterwards be cleansed by syringing it with warm water. The wax may also be softened by occasionally insinuating into the ear a few drops of a mixture, compos ed of three parts of ox-gall and one part of the balsam of Peru. This is also of service when there is a fetid discharge from the ear, of a diseased state of its secretions. When it arises in consequence of inflammation, topical blood-letting, blisters behind the ehrs, and exclusion of the external air, will be necessary. If the disease proceed from an affection of the eustachian tubes, stimulating gar gles sad injections will be proper, at the same time powerful errhines may be em ployed; and where the patient hears bet ter when there is a loud voice, he should stop the mouth and nostrils, and force the air into the tubes by violent'efforts of ex piration ; and if one effort be not suffi cient for that purpose he should employ repeated ones. When it is induced by stony, or paralysis, zther, garlic-juice, and other stimulants, should be applied by means of a dossil of cotton ; errhines also are of considerable utility, and should be snuffed up the nose two or three times a day. Blisters behind the ears, electricity, and internal stimulants, will likewise prove useful auxiliaries. If the disease arise in consequence of syphilis. we must apply to a full course of the mer cury. Whenever deafness is not easily removed by the ordinary means, the ap plication of blisters behind the ears will often be of service.