LOGIN The anatomical deecription of the body is technically arranged under the following heads : I. Osteology, or the description of the structure, shape, and uses of the hones.
2. Syndesmology, or a description of the connection of bones by ligaments, and of the structure of the joints.
Myology, or doctrine of the moving powers or muscles.
4. Angeiology, or description of the vessels engaged in nourishingthe body,in absorption, and in the removal of super fluous parts.
5. Adenology, or account of the glands, in which various liquors are separated or prepared from the blood.
6. Splanchnology, or a description of the different bowels which serve various and dissimilar purposes in the animal eco nomy.
7. Neurology, under which title the brain, the nerves, and the organs of sense must be comprehended, The functions carried on in animals, in the explanation of which physiology con sists, and for the detailed account of which we refer the reader to the article PHYSIO LOGY, may be thus arranged.
1.Digestion, or the conversion of extra neous matter into a substance fit for the nourishment of their own bodies.
2. Absorption, by which the nutritive fluid is taken up and conveyed into the vascular system, and by which the old parts of our body are removed.
3. Respiration, or the exposure of the nutritive fluid to the action of the atmos phere.
4. Circulation, or the distribution of the converted matter to every part of the animal, for its repair and augmentation. The process is named ci rculation, from the mode in which it is carried on in the ge nerality of animals.
5. Secretion, or the separation and de position of the particles composing tlte structure of animals and vegetables, as well as the formation of various substan ees which they produce from the circu lating fluids.
6. Irritability, or the principle by which living fibres contract, by means of which absorption and circulation are carried on, and which is more strikingly manifested by the occasional exertions of the muscu lar powers.
7. Sensation, by which animals become conscious of their own existence, and of that of external bodies.
8. Generation, by which new beings, si milar to the parents, are formed and pro duced.
PARTICl/UR INATORIPAL DESCRIPTION OF TIIE IIC3111/: BORT.
After a mirsory notice of the cellular sub stance, which forms the grand uniti ng me dimn of the various structuresin the body, anti of membranes, which are formed of that suhstanee, we shall proceed to de scribe the other parts, chiefly according to the technical arrangement above men tioned.
Celhtlar substance, orcellular membrane, tela cellulosa or IMICOSa of Latin writers, is the medium which connects and sup ports all the various parts and structures of the body. Any person may-gain a gene ral notion of this substance, by observing it in joints of veal, where it is always in flated by the .britchers. It consists of' an assemblage of fibres and laminx of' animal matter, connected to each other so as to form innumerable cells or small.cavities, from whicli its name of cellular is derived. It pervades every part of the animal struc ture. By joining together the minute fi brils of nurscle, tendon, or nerve, it forms obvious and visible fibres ; it collects these fibres into large faseiculi ; and by joining. such faseiculi or bundles to each other, constitutes an entire muscle, tendon, or nerve. It joins together the individual muscles, and is collected in theirintervals. It surrounds each vessel and nerve in the body ; often connecting these parts to gether by a firm kind of capsule, and in a looser form joining them to the neigh bouring Muscles, &c. When condensed into a firm and compact structure, it con stitutes the various membranes of the bo dy, which, by long maceration in water, may be resolved into a loose cellular tex ture. In the bones it forms the basis or Found-work of their fabric, a receptacle, in the interstices of which the earth of bone is deposited. As cellular substance is entirely soluble in boiling water, it is as cribed by chemists to that peculiar modi fication of animal matter termed N-elatine. In consequence of its solution by the uni ted agencies of heat and moisture, the muscular fibres separate from each other, and form the other structures of the body. This effect is seen in meat which is sub jected to long boiling. or stewing for the table, or indeed in a joint which is mere ly over-boiled.