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Mortar
Mortar, A Preparation Of Lime And Sand Mixed Up With Water, Which Serves As A Cement, And Is Used By Masons And Bricklayers In Building Of Walls Of Stone And Brick. Mortar, When Well Made And Of The Best Materiali, Becomes As Hard As Stone, And Adhering Very Strongly To ...

Mortgage
Mortgage, Signifies A Pawn Of Lands Or Tenements, Or Any Thing Immoveable, Laid Or Bound For Money Borrowed, To Be The Creditor's For Ever, If The Money Be Not Paid At The Day Agmed Upon ; The Creditor Is Then Called Tenant In Mort Gage, Or Mortgagee; And The Pawner ...

Mortmain
Mortmain, Signifies An Alienation Of Lands And Tenements To Any Corporation, And Their Successors, As Bishops, Parsons, Vicars, &c. Which Is Restrained In Magna Charts, And Cannot Be Done Without The King's License. The Disposing Of Pro Perty To Hospitals Is Allowed By 35 Eliz. C. 5. And Various Enactments• ...

Morus
Morus, In Botany, Mulberry Tree, A Ge Nus Of The Monoecia Tetrandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Scabride. Urtice, Jussieu. Essential Character : Male, Calyx Four-parted ; Corolla None : Female, Calyx Four-leaved ; Corolla None ; Styles Two ; Calyx Becoming A Berry ; Seed One. There Are ...

Mosaic
Mosaic. This Term Is Applied To The Art Of Composing Figures In Imitation Of Nature And Painting, By The Judicious Ar Rangement Of Fragments Of Marble And Co Loured Glass, Inserted In A Composition, Which, Becoming Hard Soon After The Ope Ration Is Completed, Renders The Subject A Durable.picture For ...

Moschus
Moschus, The Musk, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Mammoths Of The Order Pecora. Generic Character : No Horns ; Eight Fore-teeth In The Lower Jaw ; Tusks Solitary In The Upper Jaw, Exserted. There Are Six Species. M. Moschlferus, Or The Tihetian Musk, Is Found In The Country ...

Mosque
Mosque, A Temple, Or Place Of Reli Gious Worship, Among The Mahometans. All Mosques Are Square Buildings, Gene Rally Built With Stone: Before The Chief Gate There Is A Square Court, Paved With White Marble, And Low Galleries Round It, Whose Roof Is Supported By Marble Pil Lars. In These ...

Motacilla
Motacilla, The Wagtail, And The Warbler, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Passeres. Though Differing Somewhat Considerably In Man Ners, These Birds Are Ranked By Gmelin Under One Genus. Generic Character : Bill Subulate And Straight; Mandibles Nearly Equal: Nostrils Small And Rather Depressed ; Tongue ...

Motion
Motion Is Defined To Be The Continued And Successive Change Of Place. There Are Three General Laws Of Motion. 1. That A Body Always Perseveres In Its State Of Rest, Or Of Uniform Motion In A Right Line, Till By Some External Force It Be Made To Change Its State ...

Mountains
Mountains, Stupendous Elevations Of Earth And Other Substances, In Some Cases Coeval With Creation, And In Others The Produce Of Subterraneous Motion, Caused By Fire And Confined Vapours. The Methods Used To Ascertain The Heights Of Mountains, Are Necessarily Im Perfect, As Their Pyramidal Outline Uni Prevents The Dropping Of ...

Mucus
Mucus That Mingles With The Bile. The Hepatic Duct Is Continued In R Straight Course From The Liver To The Duo Denum, In Which It Opens. It Pasies, How. Ever, In An Oblique Manner, Between Thp Coats Of The Intestine, Before Opening Into Its Cavity. Hence The Contents Of The ...

Multi Plicatiox
Multi Plicatiox. The Multiplication Of Simple Algebrai Cal Quantities Must Be Represented Ac Cording To The Notation Already Pointed Out. Thus, A)( B, Or A 8, Represents The Pro Duct A Multiplied By B ; A B C, The Pro Duct Of The Three Quantities, A, B, And C. It ...

Multiplication
Multiplication. In Multiplication Two Numbers Are Given, And It Is Required To Find How Much The First Amounts To, When Reckon Ed As Many Times As There Are Units In The Second. Thus 8 Multiplied By 5, Or 5 Times 8, Is 40. The Given Numbers (8 And 5) Are ...

Mummy
Mummy, A Body Embalmed, Or Dried, In The Manlier Used By The Ancient Egyp Tians : Or The Composition With Which It Is Embalmed. There Are Two Kinds Of Bodies Denominated Mummies : The First Are Only Carcases Dried By The Heat Of The Sun, And By That Means Kept ...

Muriatic
Muriatic Acid, In Chemistry, May Be Procured In Various Ways: If A Retort With A Curved Tube Be Halffilled With Well Dried Common Salt, And Some Strong Sulphuric Acid Be Poured Upon It, A Copious Efferves Cence Takes Place, And The Elastic Fluid Extricated Appears In The Form Of A ...

Murraya
Murraya, In Botany, So Named In Honour Of Joseph Andrew Murray, Pro Fessor Of Medicine And Botany At Gottin Gen, A Genus Of The Decandria Monogynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Auran Tia, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Five-parted; Corolla Bell Shaped, With A Nectary Encircling The Germ : ...

Musa
Musa, In Botany, So Named In Memo Ry Of Antonins Muss, The Freedman Of Au Gustus, A Genus Of The Polygamia Monoe Cia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Scitaminex. Musa, Jussieu. Essential Character : Calyx Spathe Partial, Many Flowered; Corolla Two-petalled ; One Pe Tal Erect, Five-toothed, The Other ...

Musca
Musca, In Natural History, The Fly, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Diptera: Mouth With A Soft Exserted Fleshy Probos Cis, And Two Equal Lips; Sucker Furnished With Briitles; Feelers Two, Very Short ; Antenna Generally Short. This Is A Very Numerous Genus ; Not Fewer Than A Thou ...

Musci
Musci, In Botany, Mosses, One Of The Seven Families Into Which Linnaeus Divid Ed All Vegetables. The Characteristics Of These Plants Are, Anthers Without Fila Ments : The Male Flower Constituted By The Presence Of The Anthers, Placed Apart From The Female, Either On The Same Or Distinct Roots ; ...

Muscicapa
Muscicapa, The Flycatcher, In Natu Ral History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Passeres. Generic Character; Bill Flat Tened At The Base, Nearly Triangular, Notched Each Side, At The Root Beset With Bristles: Toes, In General, Divided To Their Origin. These Birds Are Of Eminent Utility In Warm Climates, ...

Muscle
Muscle, In Anatomy, A Part Of The Human Body, Destined To Move Some Other Part, And That In General By A Vo Luntary Motion, Or Such As Is Dictated By The Will ; Being Composed Principally Of Flesh And Tendinous Fibres, Which Have Also Vessels Of All Kinds, As Arteries, ...

Muscles
Muscles. The Nature And Objects Of The Present Work Render It Impossible For Us To Enter Into The Details Of Comparative Myology ; We Shall Therefore Restrain Our Remarks To One Or Two Subjects. The Differences Which We Discern In The Muscles Of The Lower Extremity, Be Tween Man And ...

Museum
Museum, A Collection Of Rare And In Teresting Objects, Selected From The Whole Circle Of Natural History And The Arts, And Deposited In Apartments Or Buildings, Either By The Commendable Generosity Of Rich Individuals, General Governments, Or Monarchs, For The In. Spection Of The Learned, And The Great Mass Of ...

Music
Music. Any Succession Of Sounds, However Much They May Vary In Regard To Duration, Or However Much They May Partake Of Various Modes Or Keys, Pro Vided That Succession Be Agreeable, And Excites, In A Well Tuned Ear, Certain Agree Able Sensations, Is Called Music. Hence, It Is Obvious That ...

Musical
Musical Instruments. Notwithstand Ing The Great Number Of Instruments In Use, And The Vast Alterations That Have Within These Few Years Taken Place In Their Construction, Yet We Cannot Boast Of Much Originality ; Nor Can We Assert, T It At So Much Improvement Has Been Made In This Branch ...

Myopes
Myopes. Those, Who By A Natural Defect Have The Cornea And Crystalline !'ntnour Too Convex, Are Called Rnyopes. 'i His Figure, Which Increases The Quantity Of Refraction, Tends To Render The Rays Of Such Pencils As Are Formed In The Eye More Convergent, So That The Point Where These Same ...

Myoxus
Myoxus, The In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Mammals. Of The Order Glires. Generic Character : Two Fore Teeth, The Upper Wedge Formed, The Lower Compressed ; Four Grinders In Each Jaw ; Long Whiskers ; Tail Cylindric, Brist Ly, And Thicker Towards The End ; Legs Of Equal ...

Myrica
Myrica, In Botany, Candleberry Myr Tle, A Genus Of The Dioecia Tetrandria Class And Order. Natural Order Of Amen Tacez, Jussieu. Essential Character : Ament With A Crescent-shaped Scale ; Co Rolla None ; Female, Styles Two; Berry One-seeded. There Are Nine Species, Of Which M. Gale, Sweet-gale, Sweet-willow, Or ...

Myrmecophaga
Myrmecophaga, The Ant-earer, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia, Of The Order Bruta. Generic Character: No Teeth ; Tongue Extensile And Cylindric ; Mouth Elongated Into A Form Somewhat Tu Bular; Body Covered With Bair. Though These Animals Are Stated Above To Have No Teeth, Dissection Shows That They ...

Myrmelbon
Myrmelbon, In Natural History, Lien Ant, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Neu Roptera. Mouth With A Horny, Acute Man Dible Andjaw ; Feelers Six ; Antenns Thicker At The Tip ; Wings Deflected ; Tail Of The Male Armed With A Forceps, Com Posed Of Two Straight Filaments. ...

Mythology
Mythology, The History Of The Fabu. Ions Gods And Heroes Of Antiquity, With The Explanations Of The Mysteries Or Al Legories Coached Therein. Lord Bacon Thinks, That A Great Deal Of Concealed In Struction And Allegory Was Originally In Tended In Most Part Of The Ancient My Thology : He ...

Nabob
Nabob, A Corruption From Nawaub, The Plural Of Naib. The Title Means De Puted, But It Is Often Assumed In India Without A Right To Do It. As The Real Sig Nification And Import Of This Word Are Not Generally Known, We Shall Extract A Pas Sage Out Of Mr. ...

Nails
Nails, In Building, &c. Small Spikes Of Iron, Brass, &c. Which, Being Driven Into Wood, Serve To Bind Several {niecestoge Ther, Or To Fasten Something Upon Them. The Several Sorts Of Nails Are Very Nume Rous : As 1. Back And Bottom Nails; Which Are Made With Flat Shanks, To ...

Natural
Natural History. Natural History, Taken In Its Most Extensive Sense, Signi Fies A Knowledge And Description Of The Whole Universe. Facts Respecting The Heavenly Bodies, The Atmosphere, The Earth,and Indeed All The Phenomena Which Occur In The World, And Even Those Which Relate To The External Parts, As Well As ...

Natural Lab0171
Natural Lab0171. In This Division Of Labour There Arafour Stages, According To The Mode In Which Its Progress Is Usually Contemplated. The First Stage Is That In Which The Head Of The Child Enters The Pelvis, Passing Down As Far As It Can Move Without Changing Its Position. The Second ...

Natural_2
Natural Philosophy, Otherwise Call Ed Physics, Is That Science Which Considers The Powers Of Nature, The Properties Of Natural Bodies, And Their Actions Upon One Another. Laws Of Nature Are Certain Axioms, Or General Rules, Of Motion And Rest, Observed By Natural Bodies In Their Actions Upon One Another. Of ...

Nature
Nature, According To Mr. Boyle, Has Eight Different Significations ; It Being Used, 1. For The Author Of Nature, Whom The Schoolmen Call ?swum Naturans, Being The Sank With God. 2. By The Nature Of A Thing, We Sometimes Mean Its Essence ; That Is, The Attributes Which Make It ...

Navigation
Navigation Is The Art Of Conducting A Vessel From One Port To Another, By Ob Servation Of The Heavenly Bodies, Calcula Tion Of The Distance, Or Way, Made Daily, And By Steering Such A Course, Under Guid Ance Of The Compass, As May Lead, In The Most Direct Manner, From ...

Navy
Navy, The Fleet Or Shipping Of A Prince Or State. The Management Of The British Navy Royal, Under The Lord High Admiral Of Great Britain, Is Entrusted To' Principal Officers And Commissioners Of The Navy, Who Hold Their Places By Patent. The Principal Officers Of The Navy Are Four ; ...

Nebul
Nebul&, In Astronomy. There Are Spots In The Heavens, Called Nebulae, Some Of Which Consist Of Clusters Of Telescopic Stars, Others Appear As Luminous Spots, Of Different Forms. The Most Considerable Is One In The Midway, Between The Two Stars On The Blade Of Orion's Sword, Mark Ed 6 By ...

Necessity
Necessity, Whatever Is Done By A Necessary Cause, Or A Power That Is Irre Sistible, In Which Sense It Stands Opposed To Freedom. Necassity, Philosophical. The Advo Cates Of Philosophical Necessity Maintain, That The Volition And Actions Of Intelli Gent Agents Are Produced By Causes, Equally Deciding And Resistless As ...

Needle
Needle, A Very Common Little Instru Ment Or Utensil, Made Of Steel, Pointed At One End, And Pierced At The Other, Used In Sewing, Embroidery, Tapestry, &c. Needles Make A Very Considerable Arti Cle In Commerce, Though There Is Scarcely Any Commodity Cheaper, The Consump Tion Of Them Being Almost ...

Negative
Negative Siva, The Sign Of Subtraction, Or That Which Denotes Something In De Fect. The Use Of The Negative Sign In Algebra Is Attended With Several Conse Quences That At First Sight Are Admitted With Some Difficulty, And Has Sometimes Given Occasion To Notions That Seem To Have No Real ...

Nepenthes
Nepenthes, In Botany, A Genus Of The Dioecia Syngenesia Class And Order. Essential Character : Calyx Four-parted; Corolla None : Male, Filament One, With Many Anthers, Connected Into A Peltate Head : Female, Style None ; Stigma Large ; Peltate Four-lobed; Capsule Four•celled, With Many Stilled Seeds. There Is But ...

Nerves
Nerves, Are Cylindrical Whitish Parts, Usually Fibrose In Their Structure ; Or Com Posed Of Clusters Of Filaments, Arising From The Brain, Or Rather From Its Medulla Oblongata Within The Skull, And From The Spinal Marrow, And Running From Thence To Every Part Of The Bodx. See Arizrour. Net, A ...

Neuman
Neuman, (gswisn, M. D.) In Bio Graphy, An Eminent Chemist, Was Born In 1683, At Zullichau, In The Dutchy Of Cros Son, In Brandenburg, Of Which Place His Father Was A Burgher And Apothecary. He ,was Brought Up To His Father's Profession, And In 17u5, Went To Berlin, Where Be ...

Newton Sir
Newton (sir Isaac), In Biography, One Of The Greatest Philosophers And Ma Thematicians The World Has Produced, Was Born At Woolstrop, In Lincolnshire, On Christmas Day, 1642. He Was Descended From The Eldest Branch Of The Family Of Sir John Newton, Bart Who Were Lords Of The Manorof Woolstrop, And ...

Newtonian
Newtonian Philosophy, The Doctrine Of The Universe, And Particularly Of The Heavenly Bodies; Their Laws, Affections, &c. As Delivered By Sir Isaac Newton. The Term Newtonian Philosophy Is Ap Plied Very Differently By Different Au Thors. Some Under This Philosophy In Clude All The Corpuscular Philosophy, Con Sidered As It ...

Nickel
Nickel. A White Metal, Which, When Obtained Pure, Is Both Ductile And Malle Able. It May Be Forged Into Very Thin Plates, Their Thickness Not Being Greater Than 0.01 Of An Inch. Its Colour Is Inter Mediate Between That Of Silver And Tin, And Is Not Altered By The Air. ...