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Organ
Organ. Having, Under The Article Musical Inztruncc7as, Given A Pretty Full Account Of This Instrument, We Shall Here Only Give A Description, With Figures, Of The Barrel-organ. See Plate I. Barrel Organ, And Plate Il Parts Of Ditto. The Barrel-organ Is Generally Portable, And Is So Contrived, That The Same ...

Organs Oe Generation
Organs Oe Generation. The Nature Of Generation, Which Is The Greatest Mystery In The Economy Of Liv Ing Bodies, Is Still Involved In Impenetra Ble Obscurity. The Creation Of A Living Body, That Is, Its Formation By The Union Of Particles Suddenly Brought Together, Has Not Hitherto Been Proved By ...

Organs Op Absorptioc
Organs Op Absorptioc The Absorbents Are A Minute Kind Of Vessels Ftiund In Animal Bodies, Which At Tract And Imbibe Any Fluid That Is Brought Near Their. Mouths. They Are So Minute And Trrsparent, As Not To Be Discovered In Ordinary -section ; But By Great La Bour They Have ...

Organs Of Circulation
Organs Of Circulation. A Perfect Circulating System, To Which, On The One Hand, Fluids Are Brought By The Absorbents To Be Converted Into Blood; And From Which, On The Other Side, Vari Ous Juices Are Separated In Glands, And Viscera Of A Glandular Structure, Appears To Belong Universally And Exclusively ...

Organs Of Respiration
Organs Of Respiration. The Incessant Continuation Of The Great Chemical Process, By Which Oxygen Is Ex Changed For Hydrogen And Carbon, Is Es Sentially Necessary To The Well Being Of The Greater Part Of Animals. Yet The Or Gans And Mechanism, By Which This Won Derful Function Is Carried On, ...

Organs Of Sense
Organs Of Sense. Few Subjects In Comparative Anatomy And Physiology Have Given Rise To More Various And Contradictory Opinions, Than The Organs Of Sense In Some Classes Of Ani Mals. Much Misunderstanding On This Point Has Clearly Arisen From The Incon Siderate And Unconditional Application Of Inferences Drawn From The ...

Organs Of Sense
Organs Of Sense. Organ Of Globe Of-the Eye Is Contained In A Bony Socket, Formed By The Bones Of The Cranium And Of The Face. It Is Furnished With Muscles Which Can Move It In Every Direction, And Surround Ed By A Very Soft And Delicate Kind Of Fat, Which ...

Organzine
Organzine, In Commerce, A De Scription Of Silk Usually Imported From Italy Into This Country. It Is Of The Ut Most Importance To The Manufacturer, As None Of The Principal Articles Could Be Fabricated Without It ; And The Italians Aware Of This, Long Kept The Art Of Throw Ing ...

Orgazps Of Circulation
Orgazps Of Circulation. The Heart Is The Centre Of The Circulat Ing System ; Being The Source Of The Ar Teries, And The Termination Of The Veins. The Younger The 'subject, The Larger Is The Heart In Proportionto The Body. It Is Often Smaller In Tall And Strong Men, Than ...

Orginzinn
Orginzinn. The Culture Of Silk Varies But Little In Different Countries; It Does Not Require Any Great Degree Of Skill, Or A Great Capi Tal : And As It Is Well Kown That The Silk Worm, With Proper Care, Will Breed And Thrive Very Well In England, It Is Not ...

Origin And Mr
Origin And Mr Op Instruments. Some Time Towards The Latter End Of The Century Before Last, Two Instruments Were Invented ; The Vectis, And The For Ceps. The Dectif Is What The Name Implies, Lever Which Is Intended To Assist The Deli Very Of The Child's Head. The Forceps ...

Oriolus
Oriolus, The Oriole, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pica:. Generic Character : Bill Conic, Convex, Very Sharp And Strait ; Mandibles Equal Ly Long ; Nostrils Small, And Lodged In The Base Of The Bill, And Partly Cover Ed ; Tongue Divided And Sharp-point ...

Ornithorhynchus
Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus, In Natural History, A Singular Quadruped, Re Markable For Its Structure. The Head Is Similar To That Of A Duck, Which Would Lead To The Supposition That It Belonged To An Aquatic Bird. Both Jaws Are As Broad And Low As Those In A Duck, And The Calvaria ...

Oryctology
Oryctology Is The Science Which Teaches The Natural History Of Those Ani Mal And Vegetable Substances Which Are Dug Out Of The Earth, In A Mineralized State. In The Following Slight Sketch Of The History Of These Substances It Will Be Seen, That The Remarkable Situations In Which They Have ...

Oscillation
Oscillation, In Mechanics, The Vi Bration, Or Reciprocal Ascent And Descent Of A Pendulum. See Piindulr14. It Is Demonstrated, That The Time Of A Complete Oscillation In A Cycloid, Is To The Time In Which A Body Would Fall Through The Axis Of That Cycloid, As The Circumference Of A ...

Ostrea
Ostrea, The Oyster, In Natural History, A Genus Of The Verrnes Testacea Class'and Order. Animal A Tethys : Shell Bivalve, Generally With Unequal Valves And Slightly Eared ; Hinge Without Teeth, But Furnish Ed With An Ovate, Hollow, And Mostly La Teral Transverse Grooves. About 150 Species Have Been Enumerated, ...

Otis
Otis, The Bustard, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Callina. Ge Neric Character : Bill Somewhat Convex ; Nostrils Oval And Open ; Tongue Bifid And Pointed ; Legs Long, And Naked Above The Knee ; Only Three Toes. Gmelin Men Tions Eleven Species, And Latham ...

Otto Guericke
Guericke, Otto, Or Oteio, A Very Eminent German Experimental Philoso Pher In The Seventeenth Century, Who, With Torricelli, Pascal, And Boyle, Greatly Contributed To Explain The Various Proper Ties Of The Air And Their Effects, Was Born In The Year 1602, And Died, At Hamburgh, In The Year 1686. He ...

Overseers
Overseers Of The Poor. By 43 Eliza Beth, C. 2, 1, The Churchwardens Of Every Parish, Or Two Substantial House Holders, To Be Nominated Yearly In Easter Week, Or Within One Month After Easter, Under The Hand And Seal Of Two Justices Of The Peace Of The County, Shall ...

Ovis
Ovis, The Sheep, In Natural History, A Genus Of Mammalia Of The Order Pecora. Generic Character : The Horns Hollow, Wrinkled, Turning Backwards And Out Wards Into A Spiral Form; Lower Front Teeth Eight; No Canine Teeth. There Are Nine Species Mentioned By Shaw. The Following Are Most Worthy Of ...

Oxalic
Oxalic Acid, In Chemistry, Is Found Native In Some Acid Vegetable Juices, And Rather Plentifully In The " Oxalis Acetocel La," Or " Wood-sorrel, And In Other Plants Of The Same Genus ; It Is Naturally United With A Quantity Of Potash, Not Sufficient For Complete Saturation, Forming What Has ...

Oxide
Oxide, In Chemistry. Metallic Sub Stances Are Not Only Of Vast Importance In The Arts Of Civilized Life, On Account Of The Properties Which Belong To Them In The Metallic State ; But Many Of Them Are Not Less Valuable In Those Changes Which They Undergo By New Combinations, And ...

Oyster
Oyster. See Ostrea. Ozanam (.1.osizs), In Biography, An Eminent French Mathematician, Was De Scended From A Family Of Jewish Extrac Tion, But Which Had Long Been Converts To The Romisli Faith ; And Some Of Whom Had Considerable Places In The Parliament Of Provence. Lie Was Born At Boligneaux, In ...

Paganism
Paganism, The Religion Of The Hea Then Nations, In Which The Deity Is Repre Sented Under Various Forms, And By All Kinds Of Images Or Idols ; It Is Therefore Called Idolatry, Or Image Worship. The Theology Of The Pagans Was Of Three Sorts, Viz. Fabulous, Natural, And Political Or ...

Painting
Painting. The Art Of Painting May Not Improperly Be Defined, A Mode Of Conveying Ideas To The Mind By Means Of A Representation Of The Visible Parts Of Nature. It Is A Language By Which, Though All Things Cannot, Many At Least May Be Expressed, In A Stronger And Clearer ...

Pal1i1e
Pal1i1e, In Botany, Palms. Under This Name Linnxus Has Arranged Several Genera, Which He Has Placed Apart In An Appendix To The Work. The Same Plants Constitute One Of The Seven Families Or Tribes, Into Which All Vegetables Arc Tributed By Limmus In His "philosaphia Botanical' They Are Defined To ...

Palladium
Palladium, In Chemistry, A Metal Discovered By Dr. Wollaston In The Native Platina : It Is Of A Greyish Colour, And,, When Polished, Of Considerable Lustre : It Is Very Ductile And Very Malleable ; So That By The Flatting Mill It Can Be Reduced Into Thin Slips, Which Are ...

Paper
Paper, Sheets Of A Thin Matter, Made Of Some Vegetable Substance. The Ma Terials On Which Mankind Have, In Different Ages, Contrived To Write Their Sentiments, Have Been Extremely Various ; In The Ear Ly Ages They Made Use Of Stones, And Ta Bles Of Wood, Wax, Ivory, &c. Paper, ...

Papilio
Papilio, In Natural History, Butterfly, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Lepidop Tera Antenna Growing Thicker Towards The Tip, And Generally Ending In A Knob; Wings When Fitting Erect, The Backs Meet Ing Together Over The Abdomen ; They Fly In The The Number Of Species Under This Genus ...

Papilionacei
Papilionacei, In Botany, A Term Applied To Certain Flowers, From Their Supposed Resemblance To The Figure Of A Butterfly. The Term Is Applied Also To The Thirty-second Order Of Linnxus's "fragments Of A Natural Method." They Are Divided Into Two Sections ; Viz. Those That Have The Filaments On The ...

Papists
Papists, Persons Professing The Po Pish Religion. By Several Statutes, If Any English Priest Of The Church Of Rome, Born In The Dominions Of The Crown Of England, Came From Beyond The Seas, Or Tarried In England Three Days Without Conforming To The Church, He Was Guilty Of High Treason ...

Pappus
Pappus, In Botany, Thistle-down, A Sort Of Feathery Or Hairy Crown, With Which Many Seeds, Particularly Those Of Com Pound Flowers, Are Furnished, For The Purpose Of Dissemination. A Seed Sur Mounted By Its Pappus Resembles A Shut Tle-cock, So That It Is Naturally Framed For Flying, And For Being ...

Parabola
Parabola, In Geometry, A Figure Arising From The Section Of A Cone, When Cut By A Plane Parallel To One Of Its Sides. See Conic Sections. To Describe A Parabola In Piano, Draw A Right Line A B (plate Parabola, Fig. 1) And Assume A Point C Without It ; ...

Paradisea
Paradisea, The Bird Of Paradise, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pica'. Generic Character : Bill Co Vered At The Downy Feathers ; Nostrils Covered By The Feathers ; Tail Of Ten Feathers, Two Of Them, In Some Spe Cies, Very Long ; Legs And Feet ...

Parallax
Parallax, In Astronomy, Denotes A Change Of The Apparent Place Of Any Hea Venly Body, Caused By Being Seen From Different Points Of View ; Or It Is The Dif Ference Between The True And Apparent Distance Of Any Heavenly Body From The Zenith. Thus Let A B (plate Xii. ...

Parallel
Parallel. The Subject Of Parallel Lines, Says Playfair, Is One Of The Most Dif Ficult In The Elements Of Geometry. It Has Accordingly Been Treated In A Great Variety Of Different Ways, Of Which, Per There Is None Which Can Be Said To Have Given Entire Satisfaction. The Diffi. Culty ...

Parallelogram
Parallelogram, In Geometry, A Quadrilateral Right-lined Figure, Whose Opposite Sides Are Parallel And Equal To Each Other. It Is Generated By The Equa Ble Motion Of A Right Line Always Parallel To Itself. When It Has All Its Four Angles Right, And Only Its Opposite Sides Equal, It Is Called ...

Parchment
Parchment, In Commerce, The Skins Of Sheep Or Goats, Prepared After Such A Manner As To Render It Proper For Writing Upon, Covering Books, &c. The Manufacture Of Parchment Is Begun By The Skinner, And Finished By The Parch Ment-maker. The Skin, Having Been Stripped Of Its Wool, And Placed ...

Parents
Parents And Children, In Law. If Parents Run Away, And Leave Their Child Ren At The Charge Of The Parish, The Church-wardens And Overseers, By Order Of The Justices, May Seize The Rents, Goods, And Chattels Of Such Persons, And Dispose Thereof Towards Their Children's Maintenance. A Parent May Lawfully ...

Parliament
Parliament, The High Court Of, Is The Supreme Court Of The Kingdom, Not Only For The Making, But Also For The Execu Tion Of Laws, By The Trial Of Great And Enor Mous Offenders, Whether Lords Or Com Moners, In The Method Of Parliamentary Impeachment. An Impeachment Before The Lords, ...

Parliament
Parliament. The Parliament Is The Legislative Branch Of The Supreme Power Of Great Britain, Consisting Of The King, The Lords Spiritual And Temporal, And The Knights, Citizens, And Burgesses, Representatives Of The Commons Of The Realm, In Parliament Assembled. The Power And Jurisdiction Of Parlia Ment Is So Transcendent And ...

Parliament_2
Parliament. All The Peers Who Have A Right To Sit And Vote In Parliament, Are To Be Summon Ed At Least Twenty Days Before The Trial Of A Peer Indicted For Treason Or Felony : The Method Of Proceeding In Which Is, After The Indictment Is Found, The King, By ...

Particiilar Surgical
Particiilar Surgical Ataracre. The Great Number Of These, And The Limits Prescribed By The Nature Of This Work, Render It Necessary For Us To Pass Over Several, And Attend Only To The More Important. Injuries Of The Head. Fractures Of The Skull Are Not Dangerous In Themselves, But They Indicate ...

Participle
Participle. See Grairmar. Particle, In Physiology, The Minute Part Of A Body, An Assemblage Of Which Constitute All Natural Bodies. See Aram Cal Philosophy. It Is The Various Arrangement And Tex Ture Of These Particles, With The Differ Ence Of Cohesion, &c. That Constitute The Various Kinds Of Bodies. The ...

Particular Dislocations
Particular Dislocations. Lowerjaw. This Bone Can Only Be Lux Ated Forwards, When The Condyloid Pro Cesses Advance Beyond The Eminentin Arti Culares. In This Case The Mouth Remains Open, And Cannot Be Shut; There Is Pain ; Impaired And Almost Destroyed Articula Tion And Deglutition, &c. One Or Both Condyles ...

Particular Fractures
Particular Fractures. We Shall Say A Few Words On The Most Common And Important Kinds Of Fracture. . Fracture Of The Lower Jaw May He Detect Ed By Introducing A Finger Into The Mouth And Pressing On The Front Portion Of The Bone, While The Fingers Of The Other Hand ...

Parus
Parus, The Titmouse, In Natural Histo Ry, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Passeres. Generic Character : Bill Strait, Somewhat Compressed, Strong, Hard, And Pointed ; Nostrils Round, And Covered With Bristles Turned Back Over Them From The Base Of The Bill ; Tongue Truncated, And Bristly At The ...

Pascal
Pascal (brain), A Respectable French Mathematician And Philosopher, And One Of The Greatest Geniuses And Best Writers That Country Has Produced. He Was Born At Clermont In Auvergne, In The Year 1623. His Father, Stephen Pascal, Was President Of The Court Of Aids In His Province : He Was Also ...

Pastoral
Pastoral, In General, Something That Relates To Shepherds ; Hence We Say, Pastoral Life, Manners, Poetry, &c. The Original Of Poetry Is Ascribed To That Age Which Succeeded The Creation Of The World ; And As The Keeping Of Flocks Seems To Have Been The First Employment Of Mankind, Themost ...

Pause
Pause, In Music, A Character Of Silence, Or Rest, Called Also By Some A Mute Figure, Because It Spews That Some Part Or Per Son Is To Be Silent, While The Rest Con Tinue The Song. Pauses Are Used Either For The Sake Of Some Fugue, Or Imitation, Or To ...

Pausus
Pausus, In Natural History, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Coleoptera. Anten Na Two-jointed, The Upper Joint Very Large, Inflected, Hooked, Pedicillate ; Head Pointing Forwards, With A Convex, Jugular Thorax Narrow, Unequal, Scutellate ; Shells Flexile, Deflected, Trun Cate ; Four Feet Placed At The Fore Part Of ...

Pavement
Pavement, A Layer Of Stone, Or Other Matter, Serving To Cover And Strengthen The Ground Of Divers -places For The More Commodious Walking On. In London The Pavement For Coach-ways Is Chiefly A Kind Of Granite From Scot Land : And On The Footpath Yorkshire Paving Is Used ; Courts, ...

Pearl
Pearl Fishery. The Most Important Fishery To England At Present Is That At Ceylon. The Origin Of This Method Of Procuring A Valuable Ornament For The Person Must Have Arisen From Accidental Ly Discovering The Pearl Within Oysters Taken For Food Is Evident ; But It Is Impos Sible To ...