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borer, wheel, iron, tree, water, carriage and pipes

PIPE, in building, &c. a canal or con duit, for the conveyance of water and other liquids. Pipes for water, water engines, are usually of lead, iron, earth, or wood : the latter are usually made of oak or elder. Those of iron are cast in forges, their usual length is about two feet and a half; several of these are com together by means of four screws at each end, with leather or old hat between them, to stop the water.

Those of earth are made by the potters ; these are fitted into one another, one end being always made wider than the other. To ,loin them the closer, and prevent their breaking, they are covered with tow and pitch : their length is usually about that of the iron pipes. The wooden pipes are trees bored with large iron au gers, of different sizes, beginning with less, and then proceeding with a larger successively ; the first being pointed, the rest being formed like spoons, increasing in diameter from one to six inches, or more : they are fitted into the extremi ties of each other.

pipes are bored as follows. (Fig. 1, Plate Pipe-boring,) is a plait of the machine ; and fig. 2, an elevation of it. The piece of timber intended to form the pipe is placed upon a frame, a, a, a, a, and held clown upon it firmly by chains going over it, and round two small windlasses, b b, and it is wedged up to prevent its rolling sideways ; if the piece is tolerably straight, this will be suf ficient, otherwise it must be steadied by iron dogs or hooks, similar to those used by sawyers, drove into the carriage at one end, and into the tree at the other. The frame and tree together run upon small wheels traversing two long beams or ground sills, D D, placed on each side of a pit, dug to receive the chips made by the borer ; at one end they are connected by a cross beam, E, bolted upon them ; this supports the bearing for a shaft, F, the extremity of which, beyond the bear ing, is perforated at the end with a square to receive the end of the borer,/ The carriage, a a, and piece of timber, are advanced towards the borer by ropes ; g is one hooked to it, going over a pul ley, (not seen) and returning to a wind lass, It, above the carriage, round which it is coiled several times, and the end made fast to it ; his another rope, hooked to it at the other end, and going over a pulley, and coming to the same windlass, II, it is coiled round the windlass in a contrary direction to srs-, and then nailed fast ; by this means, when the windlass, H, is turned by the handles on its wheel, I, one rope will wind up, while the other gives out, and draws the carriage and piece of timber backwards or forwards, according as the wheel is turned. The

weight of the borer is supported by a -wheel, 1, turning between uprights, fixed to a block, L, whose end rests upon the ground sills, D ; it is moved forwards by two iron bars, ni m, pinned to the front cross bar of the carriage, a a ; the dis lance °between the wheel, 2, and the car riage can be varied, by altering the iron bar and pins, so as to bring the point of support, or wheel, 1, always as near as convenient to the end of the tree. The shaft, F, may be turned by any first mover, wind, water, steam, or horses, as is most convenient, and a man regulates the wheel, I. When the borer is put in motion, by turning the wheel, I, from o to p, he draws the tree up to the borer, which pierces it ; when a few inches are bored, he withdraws the tree, by turning the wheel back, that the borer may throw out its chips ; he then returns the tree, and continues this process until the work is finished ; the borer is the shape of a common auger.

tobacco, a machine used in the smoaking of tobacco, consisting of a long tube, made of earth or clay, having at one end a little case, or furnace, called the bowl, for the reception of the tobacco, the fumes whereof are drawn by the mouth through the other end. Tobacco•pipes are made of various fashions ; long, short, plain, worked, white, varnished, unvar nished, and of various colours, &c. The Turks use pipes three or four feet long, made of rushes, or of wood bored, at the end thereof they fix a kind of pot of baked earth, which serves as a bowl, and which they take off after smoking.