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Pediculvs
Pediculvs, In Natural History, The/mac, A Genus Of Insects, Of The Order Aptera. Generic Character : Mouth With A Retrac Tile, Recurved Sucker, Without Proboscis ; No Thelers ; Antenna As Long As The Thorax; Two Eyes ; Abdomen Depressed ; Legs Six, Formed For Running. These Live By Ex ...

Pelecanus
Pelecanus, The Pelican, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Anseres. Generic Character : Bill Straight, Honked At The Point ; Nostrils In An Almost Obliterated Furrow ; Face Almost Naked Of Feathers ; Gullet Naked, And Capable Of Great Distention ; Four Toes, All Webbed To ...

Pendulum
Pendulum, In Mechanics, Denotes Any Heavy Body, So Suspended As That It May Vibrate Or Swing Backwards And For Wards, About Some Fixed Point, By The Force Of Gravity. The Vibrations Of A Pendulum Are Called Its Oscillations. See Oscilla•ion. A Pendulum, Therefore, Is Any Body, B, (plate Xii. Miscell. ...

Pentagraph
Pentagraph, An Instrument Where- By Designs Of Any Kind May Be Copied In What Proportion You Please, Without Be Ing Skilled In Drawing. (plate Penta Graph, Fig. 1), Is A Plan Of A Pentagraph, And (fig. 2 And 3), Part Of The Same On A Larger Scale. The Pentagraph Is ...

Pepper
Pepper, In Natural History, An Aroma Tic Berry, Of A Hot Dry Quality, Chiefly Used In Seasoning. See Piper. We Have Three Kinds Of Pepper At This Time In Use In The Shops ; The Black, The White, And The Long Pepper. Black Pepper Is The Fruit Of A Plant ...

Peraaibulator
Peraaibulator, A Machine For Measuring Distances Upon The Ground. Ls External Figure Is Shewn In Figs. 1 And 2, Plate Perambulator. A B Is A Maho Gany Wheel, Strongly Framed And Hooped With Iron, That It Ma) Not Wear, It Turns In A Handle, I) E, Which The Operator Holds ...

Perca
Perca, The Perch, In Natural History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Thoracici. Generic Character : Jaws Unequal Teeth Sharp And Incurvatecl ; Gill Coversof Three Lamina, Scaly And Serrated; Dorsal Fin Spiny On The Fore Part ; Scales Generally Hard And Rough. There Are Sixty Species, Of Which ...

Peripatetic
Peripatetic Philosophy, That System Taught And Established By Aristotle, And Maintained By His Followers, The Peripate Tics, Called Also Aristotelians. The Philosophy Of Aristotle May Be Di Vided Into Three Distinct Branches ; Instru Mental, Theoretical, And Practical. Under The First Head Are Included His Doctrines Concerning Logic ; Under ...

Personatx
Personatx, In Botany, Masked, The Name Of The Fin-tieth Order In Linnzus's Fragments Of A Natural Method, Consist Ing Of A Number Of Plants Whose Flowers Are Furnished With An Irregular Gaping Petal, Which, In Figure, Somewhat Resem Bles The Snout Of An Animal. Most Of The Genera Of This ...

Perspective
Perspective, Aerial, Is The Art Of Giving A Due Diminution Or Degradation To The Strength Of The Light, Shade, And Colours Of. Objects, According To Their Different Distances, The Quantity Of Light Which Falls On Them, And The Medium Through Which They Are Seen. As The Eye Does Not Judge ...

Perspective
Perspective Is The Foundation Of All The Polite Or Liberal Arts That Have Their Basis In Drawing; Though Colouring, Taken Abstractedly, Does Not Come Within Its Rules, Yet The Painter, As Well As The Sculptor And Architect, Cannot But De Rive Essential Advantages From A Know Ledge Of Perspective ; ...

Perspiration
Perspiration, In Medicine, The Eva Cuation Of The Juices Of The Body Through The Pores Of The Skin. Perspiration Is Distinguished Into Sensible And Insensible. See Physiology. The Skin Of Man And Of Animals Is Pierc Ed With An Influitude Of Pores, Through Which, By Means Of The Transpiration, The ...

Peruke
Peruke. It Appears That This Term Was Originally Applied To Describe A Fine Natural Head Of Long Hair ; But Whatever May Have Been The Ancient Use Or Mean Ing Of The Word, It Has Now Almost Become Obsolete, Though It Was For More Than A Century In Constant Application ...

Peter Apian
Apian, (peter), In Biography-, An Eminent Astronomer And Mathematician, Called In German 13iene-witz, Was Born At Loisnich, In Misnia, And Became Professor Of Mathematics At Ingolstaclt, In 1524. He Wrote Several Treatises On Astronomy And The Matheinatics, And Enriched These Sciences With Many Instruments And Ob Semations. His First Work ...

Peter Gassendi
Gassendi, (peter,) In Biography, A Very Eminent Philosopher And Mathema Tician, And One Of The Most Illustrious Orna Ments Of France, In The Seventeenth Cen Tury, Was Born In The Year 1592, At Chan Terseir, About Three Miles From Digne, In Provence. He Afforded Early Evidence That He Possessed A ...

Petromyzon
Petromyzon, The Lamprey, In Natu Ral History, A Genus Of Fishes Of The Order Cartilaginei. Generic Character : Body Shaped Like An Eel ; Mouth Beneath, With Numerous Teeth, In Circular Rows ; Seven Spiracles On Each Side The Neck ; No Pec Toral Or Ventral Fins. Shaw Notices Nine ...

Petty
Petty, (sir Willtam), A Singular In• Stance Of A Universal Genius, Was The Elder Son Of Anthony Petty, A Clothier At Rum. Soy In Hampshire, England, Where Lie Was Born In The Year 1623. While A Boy He Took Great Delight In Spending His Time Among The Artificers, Whose Trades ...

Pha Lena
Pha Lena, In Natural History, The Moth, A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Lepidop Tera. Generic Character : Antennx Gra Dually Tapering From The Base To The Tip ; Wings, When At Rest Generally Deflected : Flight Nocturnal. They Fly Abroad Only In The Evening And During The Night, ...

Pharmaceutical Operations
Pharmaceutical Operations. Under This Head We Shall Comprise The Mode Of Collecting And Preserving Medi Cinal Simples; The Mechanical Instru Ments Employed, And The Changes They Introduce ; Chemical Instruments And Ap Paratus, Their Use, Application And Power, Collection And Preservation Of Simples. Each Of The Kingdoms Of Nature Fur ...

Pharmaceutical Preparations
Pharmaceutical Preparations. The Classes Into Which These Are Divided Have A Considerable Difference, As Well In Number As In Arrangement, In Our Dif Ferent Collegiate Pharmacopoeias. That Of The London College In Present Use Is Become Perfectly Obsolete, Both In Order And Nomenclature. To The Nomenclature Of The Edinburgh We ...

Phasianus
Phasianus, The Pheasant, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Gal Jinx. Generic Character : Bill Short, Strong, And Convex ; Head Covered In Some Degree With Carunculated Flesh ; Legs Generally With Spurs. There Are Ten Species. P. Gallus, Or The Wild Pheasant, Inha Bits The ...

Philip Naude
Naude, (philip) In Biography, An Able Professor Of Mathematics At Berlin In The Seventeenth And Early Part Of The Eighteenth Century, Was Born At Metz In Lorrain, In The Year 1654. At The Age Of About Twelve, He Was Taken Into The Ser Vice Of The Court Of Eysenach, In ...

Philosophy
Philosophy, Mental. 1. That Science Which Teaches Us The Laws Of Our Mental Frame, Which Spews Us The Origin Of Our Various Modes And Habits Of Thought And Feeling, How They Operate Upon One An Other, And How They Are Cultivated Or Re Pressed, Is Mental Philosophy, Or The Phi. ...

Phoca
Phoca, The Seal, In Natural History, A Genus Of Nlammalia Of The Order Fere. Generic Character : Fore Teeth, In The Up Per Jaw, Six, Sharp, Parallel, And The Ex Terior Ones Larger ; In The Lower Jaw Four, Distinct, Parallel, Equal, And Rather Blunt; Tusks One On Each Side ...

Phosphoric
Phosphoric Add. When Phospho• Tan Undergoes Combustion In Oxygen Gas, A Great Quantity Of White Fumes Arepro Duced, Which Are Deposited In White Flakes. These Are Phosphoric Acid ; So That It Is A Compound Of Phosphorus And Oxygen. The Phosphoric Acid Was First Shewn To Be Distinct From All ...

Phosphorus
Phosphorus. This Singular Sub Stance Was Accidentally Discovered In 1677 By An Alchymist Of Hamburgh, Nam Ed Brandt, When He Was Engaged In Searching For The Philosopher's Stone.— Kunkel, Another Chemist, Who Had Seen The New Product, Associated Himself With One Of His Friends, Named Krafft, To Pur Chase The ...

Photometer
Photometer, An Instrument Intend Ed To Indicate The Different Quantities Of Light, As In A Cloudy Or Bright Day, Or Be Tween Bodies Illuminated In Different De Grees. The Ratio Of The Intensities Of Two Luminous Objects Has Been Attempted To Be Measured, By Placing Them At Different Dis Tances ...

Phryganea
Phryganea ,in Natural History, A Ge Nus Of Insects Of The Order Neuroptera. Generic Character: Mouth With A Horny Short Curved Mandible ; Feelers Four ; Three Stemmata ; Antenna Setaceous, Long Er Than The Thorax ; Wings Equal, Incum Bent, The Lower Ones Folded. There Are Nearly Sixty Species, ...

Physiognomy
Physiognomy, Is The Peculiar Bination Of Features, Which Designates The Feelings And Dispositions Of The Mind. That Every Individual Of The Human Race Possesses A Set Of Distinctive Marks, In The Form Of The Head And The Outlines Of The Countenance, Is Visible To The Most Inattentive Observer ; And ...

Physiology
Physiology Is The Science Which Treats Of The Powers That Actuate The Compo Nent Parts Of Living Animal Bodies, And Of The Functions Which Those Bodies Execute. It Presupposes, Therefore, A Knowledge Of The Structure Of The Body, Which Is The Object Of Anatomy ; The Latter May Be Called ...

Picquet
Picquet, A Celebrated Game At Cards Vol. V. Played Between Two Persons, With Only Thirty-two Cards ; All The Deuces, Threes,. Tours, Fives, And Sixes, Being Set Aside. In Play Ing At This Game Twelve Cards Are Dealt To Each, And The Rest Laid On The Table : When, If ...

Picts
Picts, The Wood-pecker, In Natural His Tory, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Pica. Generic Character: Bill Straight, Strong, Angular, And Wedge-formed At The Tip Nostrils Covered With Bristly Feathers, Re Flected Downwards; Tongue Long, Slender, Cylindric, Bony, Jagged At The End, And Missile; Tail Of Ten Feathers, Stiff ...

Pimpinella
Pimpinella, In Botany, Burnet Saal /rage, A Genus Of The Pentandria Digynia Chtss And Order. Natural Order Of Um Bellate, Or Umbelliferat. Essential Cha Racter : Petals Bent In ; Stigma Subglobu Lar ; Fruit Ovate, Oblong. There Are Nine Species, Among Which We Shall Notice The P. Anisum, Anise ...

Pin Us
Pin Us, In Botany, Pine Tree, A Genus Of The Monoecia Monadelphia Class And Or. Der. Natural Order Of Coniferac. Essen Tial Character : Male, Calyx Four-leaved ; Corolla None ; Stamina Very Many, With Naked Anthers : Female, Calyx Strobiles, With A Two-flowered Scale ; Corolla None ; Pistil ...

Pipe
Pipe, In Building, &c. A Canal Or Con Duit, For The Conveyance Of Water And Other Liquids. Pipes For Water, Water Engines, Are Usually Of Lead, Iron, Earth, Or Wood : The Latter Are Usually Made Of Oak Or Elder. Those Of Iron Are Cast In Forges, Their Usual Length ...

Piper
Piper, In Botany, Pepper, A Genus Of The Diandria Trigynia Class And Order. Natural Order Of Piperitm. Urticze, Jus Sieu. Essential Character : Calyx None ; Corolla None ; Berry One-seeded. There Are Sixty Species. Most Of The Peppers Are Perennial, With Herbaceous Or Frutes Cent Stems, Sometimes Scandent And ...

Pirenicopteros
Pirenicopteros, The Flamingo, In Natural History, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Grallx. Generic Character : Bill Naked, Toothed, Bending In The Middle, As If Broken ; Nostrils Covered Above With A Thin Plate, And Linear ; Tongue Car Tilaginous And Pointed ; Neck, Legs, And Thighs Exceedingly Long ...

Pisces
Pisces, In Natural History, Is The Fourth Class In The Linmean System, Consisting Of Five Orders, Viz. Abdominales Jugulares Apodes Thoracici Carulaginii The Class Is Described As Having Incum Bent Jaws ; Eggs Without White ; Organs Of Sense ; For Covering, Imbricate Scales ; Fins For They Swim In ...

Planaria
Planaria, In Natural History, A Ge Nus Of The Vermes Intestina Class And Order. Generic Character : Body Gelatin Ous, Flattish, With A Double Ventral Pore ; Mouth Terminal. There Are About Fifty Species, Divided Into Six Sections, Distin Guished By The Number Of Their Eyes : A Without Eyes ...

Plane
Plane, In Joinery, An Edged Tool, Or Instrument For Paring And Shaving Of Wood Smooth. It Consists Of A Piece Of Wood, Very Smooth At Bottom, As A Stock Or Shaft ; In The Middle Of Which Is An Aperture, Through Which A Steel-edge, Or Chisel, Placed Obliquely, Passes ; ...

Planetarium
Planetarium, An Astronomical Ma Ohine, Contrived To Represent The Mo Tions, Orbits, &c. Of The Planets, As They Really Are In Nature, Or According To The Copernican System. A Very Remarkable Machine Of This Sort Was Invented By Iluygens, Which Is Still Preserved Amolg The Curiosities Of The University At ...

Planets
Planets, Nature Of The. That The Plan Ets Are Opaque Bodies, Like Our. Earth, Ap Pears Evident For The Following Reasons : 1. Since In Venus, Mercury, And Mars, Only That Part Of The Disc Illuminated By The Sun Is Found To Shine ; And Again, Venus And Mercury, When ...

Planets_2
Planets, Masses Of It Would Appear, At First View, Impossible To Ascertain The Respective Masses Of The Sun And Planets, And To Calculate The Velocity With Which Heavy Bodies Fall Towards Each When At A Given Distance From Their Centres ; Yet These Points May Be Determined From The Theory ...

Planets_3
Planets, Motion Of The. Each Of The Primary Planets Bend Their Course About The Centre Of The Sun, And Are Accelerat Ed In Their Motions As They Approach To Him, And Retarded As They Recede From Him ; So That A Ray, Drawn From Any One Of Them To The ...

Plashing
Plashing Of Quickset Hedges, An Ope Ration Very Necessary, To Promote The Growth And Continuance Of Old Hedges. It Is Performed In This Manner : The Old Stubs Must Be Cot Off, Gi:c- Within Two Or Three Inches Of The Ground, And The Best And Longest Of The Middle Sized ...

Plate
Plate Fig. 1. I Front View Of The Mucks. The Right Side Of The Figure Represents The First Or Most Superficial Stratum : On The Left Side The Second Layer Is Exhibited. It Would Be Impossible To Refer To All The Muscles Exhibited In This And The Follow Ing Muscular ...

Plating
Plating, Is The Art Cf Covering Baser Metals With A Thin Plate Of Silver, Either For Use Or For Ornament. It Is Said To Have Been Invented By A Spur-maker, Not For Show, But For Real Utility. Till Then The More Elegant Spurs In Common Use Were Made Of Solid ...

Ples 12
Ples. 12. In The Same Manner Wit Is Found Needful, For The Purpose Of Accurate And -- Expeditions Communication, To Employ Words To Modify Or Restrict The Significa Tion Of Nouns, It Is Found At Least Conve Nient To Appropriate Other Words To Mo Dify Or Restrict The Signification Of ...