12. In the same manner wit is found needful, for the purpose of accurate and -- expeditions communication, to employ words to modify or restrict the significa tion of nouns, it is found at least conve nient to appropriate other words to mo dify or restrict the signification of adnouns and verbs. These are called ADVERBS, which are to be regarded as a class of words formed from nouns or adnouns, and used to express some quality or circum stance respecting the action, quality, or circumstance, denoted by verbs or ad nouns. They are, therefore, convenient abbreviations, which may be supplied by the other sorts of words.
13. From nouns, adnouns, and verbs, another class of words have arisen, which from the long disuse of the original forms of them, have lost their peculiar charac teristics, and are now regarded as inde pendent of them. They are now used to connect words or sentences, or words and sentences ; and, in general, point out some particular kind of connection, From the employment of them, they may be term ed coxxacaavas ; and under this class, we comprehend those words which are usual ly denominated Prepositions and Con junctions. The distinction between these two sorts of Connectives is merely tech nical ; the latter requiring after them a peculiar form of the pronoun, and of the noun, in languages in which the noun ad mits of flexion.
14. We feel obliged, very much against our inclination, to admit, as an eighth class of words, some of those which are usually denominated is-ratuamoxs. Words of this sort are of very little ion. portance, and by many are thought unde serving of the name of words. Some are involuntary expressions of grief, or joy, or surprize, or some other strong emotion and some may be used with the intention of informing others what emotions are in the mind of the speaker or writer. The former set have no more right to be call ed words, than the sigh of sorrow, the groan of pain, the laugh of mirth, &c. which no one calls words ; for words are voluntary vocal sounds, employed to ex press our ideas to others. The latter set are generally found to be parts of sen tences, or single words of the before mentioned sorts. Our great philosophical etymologist, Mr. Horne Tooke, has traced the origin of the greater part of them ; and the few that remain will probably be hereafter traced by some of those grap marians who are treading in his steps.
We now proceed to a few remarks on each of these sorts of words : our limits will allow of very little amplification, and will enable us only to present an outline to our readers. Those who wish for further information, we beg to refer to the article GRAMMAR, in Dr. Rees's " Cyclopedia." 1. Of the .Youn.
15. Those words which are names of things, and which can stand alone, as the subject of an affirmation,are called Nonni: this classof words has two grand divisions: substantives and abstract nouns (8). Sub stantives are the names for substances. All names must originally have been names of individuals ; the extension of the Application of them must, however, have been immediate. The difficulty of pro ducing a great number of distinguishable articulate sounds, and the operation ofthe associative power, first led to generaliza tion; convenience, perhaps we may justly say necessity, led to its extension and completion. When a number of things resemble each other in some strikingpar ticulars, we class them together in one species, and give to the species a name which is applicable to every individual in eluded in it. When several species agree in some common properties, we refer them to a higher class, which we call a genus,and to the genus give a name which is applicable to every species and every individual included in it ; and this classi we extend to the limits of human knowledge : and it is one of those admi rable contrivances which are the.result of necessity or of casual circumstances, but tvhich, being extended and perfected by science, contribute essentially to the pro gress and diffusion of knowledge. But though it is necessary, for the purposes of communication, that many names shonI(I he applicable to classes of indivi duals, it is also necessary, that there should he others capable of denoting in dividuals, without the circuitous plan of naming the general term, and the distin guishing qualities of the individual ; and, accordingly, we find in all languages nu merous words, which apply to an indivi dual only, or, at least, are at once referred, both by speaker and hearer, to an indi vidual. Those names which, when alone, apply to a number of individuals, are call.