ARCHITECTURAL PAINTING has for its subjects the exteriors or interiors of remark able buildings; churches, castles, streets in cities, etc. It is mentioned by Vitruvius, but is comparatively a modern art. Benozzo Gozzoli, Ghirlandajo, and the Venetian school, cultivated this department of art in the middle ages; and Pinturicchio, by order of pope Innocent VIII., painted a series of views of cities in the style of the Flemish school, which, under the brothers Van Eyck, had distinguished itself by careful treat ment of architectural backgrounds, etc. For a long time, A. P. was regarded only as accessory to other styles of art; but, at the close of the 16th c., P. Neefs, in his views of the interiors of Gothic churches, gave to this branch, of the fine arts an independent form; and Steenwyck the younger, in the following century, extended its application in his views of the interiors of prisons, of which his picture of "Peter Liberated from Prison " is an example. The art was still further extended and cultivated by Van der Heiden, Buick, Van Deelen, E. de Ville, Johann Ghering, and others who painted views of church interiors in the Italian style, palaces, and chambers. The interior view of the church of Amsterdam, painted by Ruisdael, deserves especial notice. In the 18th c., the Venetian Canale and his nephew Bellotto (generally known by the name of Canaletto), painted many views of cities, but especially of the canals and buildings of Venice. Collections of their numerous works are found at Dresden, Woburn abbey, etc.
In recent times, A. P. has been very successfully cultivated in Germany, France, England, Holland. and Belgium. Schiukel is celebrated for his fine union of classical
taste with richness of decorative invention. His two most striking works are St. Peter's, and the Duomo at Milan; Paul Gropius has shown great talent in his cathedral at Rheims, built in honor of Joan of Arc. His dioramas are well known; and Domenico Quaglio, who d. in 1837, throughout his innumerable compositions, has exhibited an exquisite appreciation of perspective, and of the poetical arrangement of details. Among modern A. painters may be mentioned—in England, Prout (views of Italy, Germany, etc.), Roberts (whose genius has sought for its materials in Spain and the east, and who paints the architecture of foreign lands with rare truthfulness and lively vigor), Mackenzie, Goodall, Williams, and the water-color painters Haglie, Chase, Howse, and others; in France—Grand (d. 1849), the most celebrated art painter of the new French school; and the water-color painters Ouvrii!, Garnery, Bochebrune, and Vi]lerct; in ftaly—Migliara and Nehrlich (a German, who has been styled " the modern Canaletto"); In Germany—Von Bayer, Hasenpflu!r, of Halberstadt (who paints beautifully old cloister alleys under winter-effects), Ainmuller, Vermeersch, Pulian of Dusseldorf (who displays great skill in the representation of old streets and time-worn churches), Conrad, Gartner, Grceb, Helfft, Dietrich, etc.; in Holland and Belgium—Waldorp, Carsen, Boosborn, Von Hamlett, Ten Kate, Springer, and Bossuet.