PERTHSHIRE, one of the most important counties in Scotland, is bounded on the s. by the shires of Stirling and Clackmannau; on the n. by Inverness and Aberdeen; on the w. by Argyle and Dumbarton ;'and on the e. by Forfar, Fife, and Kinross. It extends from e. to w. about 70 m., and from a. to s. about 66 miles. Its area is 2,834 m., or 1,814, 063 acres, of which above 32,000 are covered with water. It is divided into the highland and lowland districts, the former occupying much the larger surface, and these are sub divided into ten divisions—viz., Menteitb, Strathearm Gowrie, Stormont, Strathardle, Glenshee, Athole, Breadalbane, Banned], and Balquiddcr. Perthshire, from its insular position and other advantages, has a comparatively mild climate; and the soil, in Strath earn, Carse of Gowrie. and other less extensive tracts, being mostly composed of a rich loam. crops of all kinds arc brought to the utmost perfection. These districts are also famed for their fruit and floral productions. Perthshire is not less distinguished for its magnificent mountain, lake, and river scenery. The Grampians here attain to nearly their maximum height, Ben Lawers being within a few feet of 4,000 in altitude; while Ben More is 3,843; and several others above 3,000. The lakes are numerous, the princi pal of which are lochs Tay, Ericht, Rannoch, Tummel, Lydock, Garry, Lyon, and Dochart. There are several streams of note, the principal being the Tay, which is fed by numerous other streams, and is said to discharge as much water into the sea as any other river in the kingdom. These lakes and streams afford excellent fishing, and the Tay is valuable for its salmon, yielding in rent about 215.000 a year.
The monuments of hoar antiquity to be found in this county afford an interesting field of investigation for the curious. northward of the BonnIn Avail. Perthshire comprises the scenes of the last struggle for independence which the inhabitants of the lowland districts of Scotland made against those formidable enemies of theirs who were regarded as invincible. The last battle fought by the Caledonians against the Romans
was at Mons Gramp, or rather, as it should be read, Gmup, supposed to be indicated by the great camp at Ardoch, between Dunblane and Crieff, and which does not at all seem to be connected with the Grampian range. In this final struggle, the result of which was that the Lowlanders were defeated, Agricola commanded the conquering host, and the Caledonians were led by a chief named Galgaeas.
The chief towns of Perthshire are Perth, Conpar-Angus, Auchterarder• Crieff, Dun Mane, and Blairgowrie. According to agricultural statistics taken in 1S76, the number of acres under all kinds of crops, bare fallow, and grass was 336,924; under corn crops, 106,006; under green crops. 50,393; clover, sanfoin, and grasses under. rotation, 99,100; permanent pasture and meadow land (exclusive of heath or mountain land), 79.343. Horses used for agriculture, etc., 13,764; cattle, 80,024; sheep, 659,210: pigs. 9,597. The valued rent of Perthshire for 1674 was equal to 228,330; for 1875-76, £855,928—exclusive of £110,533 for railways and water-works. The rate of assessment is: For prisons, 2s.; police, 6s. 2d. ; lunacy, Os. ; sheriff court-houses, 2s.; bridge money, 1s. ; contagions dis eases, animals, 6d.; genera], 9I.; and land valuation and voters, 7d. per £100.
The old red sandstone. granite, and slate abound. lu this county are situated some of the stateliest mansions in Scotland, but, except Scone palace, none of them contain any his torical memorials; and objects of antiquarian interest more recent than Roman roads and camps, are the cathedrals of Dunblane and Dunkeld, and the Abbey of Culross. There arc two royal burghs, Perth and Culross, besides which there are several villages of con siderable size, where trade in flax, etc., is carried on to some extent. Pop., '71. 127,768.