PESTALOZZI, was b. at Zurich, Jan. 12, 1745. Ills family belonged to the middle-class gentry. He was destined for the Christian ministry, but turned aside, however, from this profession, and betook himself to the study of law. To this pursuit he did not Iong remain constant. The perusal of li,pussean's Emile, and the unsatisfactory political condition in which he found Europe, united to disgust hint with the artificial life of cities, and he accordingly removed to the country, to devote his life to farming. Purchasing some; waste land (after he had acquired the necessary experience), he applied himself successfully to its cultivation, marrying about the same time the daughter of a wealthy merchant. His mind continuing to be afflicted by the contemplation of the unhappy condition of the masses of the people, he devoted himself during, the intervals of his work to the consideration of the means best suited to pro mote their elevation. , He was convinced that, by means of a sound education, a remedy might be found for the many evils by which he was surrounded, and by which society was infected. To give effect to his theories he converted his own house into an orphan asylum, and endeavored, by a judicious blending of industrial, intellectual, anti moral training, to afford a specimen of sound education, and one so contrived as to be practi cable as a national scheme. Meanwhile, the pursuit of his benevolent enterprises involved him, after the lapse of fifteen years (1775-90), in bankruptcy. The failure of his plans, and the democratic tendency of his opinions, brought upon him a good deal of contempt and opposition. His only consolation was having saved from degradation and ndOteet
upward of 100 children, and having issued several volumes on education, containing tho results of his experience, and his hopes for the future of the masses. Many subsequent attempts to found schools and to give a specimen of rational scholastic training, were made by Pestalozzi, with varying educational success, but with invariable pecuniary embarrass ment. His writings. meanwhile, increased in number and importance. The great idea which Illy at the basis of his method of Intellectual instruction was, that nothing should lie treated of except in a concrete way. Objects themselves became in his hands the sub ject of lessons tootling to the development of the observing and reasoning powers—not 'lessons about objects. In arithmetitic, he thesoncrete, and proceeded to tho abstract; and into the teaching of writing, he for the first time introduced graduation. Ills special attention, however, was directed to the moral and religious training of chil dren, as distinct from their mere instruction; and here, too, graduation, and a regard to the nature and susceptibilities of children, were conspicuous features of his system. Almost all Pestalozzi's methods are now substantially adopted by the instructors of ele mentary teachers in the normal schools of Europe, and to no man perhaps has primary instruction been so largely indebted. He died in 1827 at Brugg, in the canton of Basel, overwhelmed with mortihations and disappointments.