The commerce of Philadelphia is Qf great importance, and of comparatively recent growth. In 1870 the value of imports amounted to $14,500,797; of exports to $16,934,610; in 1880 the custom-house returns place the yallie of imports at $38,933,832, and that of exports at $50,685,838. In 1880 the exports included provisions, $6,896,856; breadstuffs, $26,984,476; tallow's, $554,298; leaf tobacco, $837,070; manufactured tobacco, $70,182; crude petroleum, $316,330; refined petroleum, $4,640,459; naphtha and benzine, $88,936 •The total amount of duties received was $12,726,876.80. Commodities to the value or $1,704,892 were received from other ports, without appraisement, and to the value of $1,728,957 forwarded for immediate transportation to other ports. The number of vessels front foreign ports arriving in Philadelphia in 1880 was 1583, with a tonnage of 1.334,150 tons; of these, 476 vessels, with a tonnageof 285,760 tons, were of American register; the number of vessels cleared for foreign ports from -Philadelphia in 1880 aggregated 1450, with a tonnage of 1,140,797 tons: of these, 305 vessels, with a tonnage or 222,104 tons, were of American register. The coastwise entrances for 1880 were 1019 vessels, kith a tonnage of 555,723 tons; and the coastwise clearances numbered 1443 vessels, with a tonnage of 779.083 tons. The immigrants numbered 29,964 persons, viz., 16,886 males, and 13,078 females. To these official figures should be added the large number of American vessels engaged in the domestic trade not under custom-house control. The number of enrolled coasting vessels belonging to the port of Philadelphia in 1874 was 3,040, and 120 were built that year; their aggregate tonnage was 394,760 tons. In the same year the coal delivered at port Richmond by the Philadelphia and Reading railroad amounted to 2,076,251, tons. • Iron ship-building is carried on at the Delaware in the yards of the Philadelphia and Reading railroad, Cramp & Sons, and John Roach at Chester, besides others. The foreign steamship service at Philadelphia embraces that of the American line to Liver pool, and that of the Red Star line to Antwerp, the former under American, the latter under Belgian colors.
By the census of 1870, as revised by the Philadelphia beard of trade, it led every other city in the union in the number of its manufacturing establishments, and of per employed, as well as in the variety of the articles manufactured, the value of the material used, and the amount of capital invested; being second to New York only in the value of the products. It contained in that year 8,579 manufacturing establishments with 2,177 steam-engines of 57,304 horse-power, and 59 water-wheels of 2,696 horse power, giving employment to 152,550 hands, who received Q65,647,874 in wages. Invested capital, $204,840,637; value of materials used, $193,861,07; value of products, t362,484,698. With a clear increase of 16 per cent on the population, and of almost 300 per cent on its imports and exports, the census returns for 1880 will doubtless exhibit a corresponding enlargement of the figures given. The capital invested in banks aggre Jan. 1, 1875. $19,235, 950; of these, 30 were national banks with a capital of $17,135,000, and 10 state banks with a capital of $2.100,950. The Merchants' national bank, with a capital of $600,000, opened Mar. 23, 1880. Some of the bank buildings have great architectural merits, notably the Philadelphia, Farmers' and Mechanics', and Girard banks. The Bank of North America is the oldest in the country. The People's
state bank is a very fine structure. There are 5 saving :ands, a large number of tire, marine, and life-insurance companies, and some 600 building and loan associations. A large part of the city is still used for farming purposes, and farming products raised within the city limits in 1870 were valued at $2.231,366. In the neighborhood of the banks is Third street, the Wall street of Philadelphia; and all the financial and great commercial centers, head-quarters of traffic, the press, the courts, the custom-house, and post-office, are thrown into a comparatively small compass. The lower part of the city represents the wholesale business, while the finest retail stores are on Chestnut street from Seventh to Fifteenth streets. On the same street are also some of the best hotels, several handsome churches, Independence hall, the Times Ledger building, the mint, and other imposing structures.
The municipal government consists of the and the recorder, a select and com mon council. The mayor, elected by the people for a term of three years, has supervisory power over the various departments named below, the control of the police, and the right to approve or vetosthe ordinances of the city councils. The select council consists of 31 members, representing the wards into which the city is divided, chosen people for a term of 8 years; the common council for 1881 contains 83 members, each representing 2,000 taxahles, elected for two years. The management of the city is carried on under the control of councils, and the different departments. trusts, and commissions. The controller, treasurer, solicitor, collector of taxes bid commissioners are elected by the people for 2 or 3 years. There are departments of police, fire, highways, markets, and city property, water, and surveys; trustees of gas works, board of health, guardians of the poor, board of public education, inspectors of the county prison, managers of the house of correction, directors of city trusts, board of port wardens, commissioners of public buildings, of Fairmount park, of the sinking fund, of the harbor, the Girard estates, superintendent of city railroads, and trustees of city ice-boats.
The latest published exhibit of the city finances, Sept. 2, 1880, places estimated expenses for 1881 at $12,892,682.73; value of taxable property, real and personal, $543,669.129; funded debt, $69,862,030.33; assets in sinking funds, $20,296,837.64; amount necessary to be raised by taxation, $8,267,761.70; number of taxable voters, 211,233. Philadelphia is represented in the stow legislature by 8 senators and 38 assem blymen, and in congress by 5 members. The aggregate vote of Philadelphia for presi dential electors, Nov. 2, 1880, numbered 173,889: carfield, 97,239; Hancock, 76.336. The principal county officers, elected by the people for 3 years, are time sheriff, recorder of deeds, register of wills, district attorney, 4 city commissioners, and 4 appraisers. The U. S. circuit and district courts for e. Pennsylvania and terms of the supreme court of Pennsylvania are held in Phihidelphia. There are 4 common pleas' courts, each consist ing of 3 judges; the same judges hold courts of oycr and terminer, and of quarter sessions, in criminal matters; and an orphans' court of 3 judges.