Points of historical interest are: the legendary treaty ground at Shackamaxon, with a monument marking the site of the elm tree, erected in 1827; the Germantown battle ground; and fort Mifflin, on the site of Mud fort, on the w. side of the Delaware. The Letitia house, degraded into a tavern; Ca•penter's hall, between 3d and 4th streets, on Chestnut street, in which was held the first continental congress, Sept. 5, 1774; the house in which Jefferson wrote the declaration of independence, at the saw. corner of 7th and Market streets; the old London coffee-house, s.o. corner of Front and Market streets. The most interesting of all is Independence ball, or the old state house, between 5th and 6th streets, on the s. side of Chestnut street, built in 1732-35, in which the second con• tinental congress adopted the declaration of independence, and where the liberty bell, July 8, 1776, fulfilled the proud mission inscribed on it in the sacred words, "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land, to all the inhabitants thereof." Lev. xxv. 10. In the western mom on the first is the national museum, filled with relics of the colonial and revolutionary history of the country. In the old congress hall adjoining, con.rress met from 1700 to 1800, Washington was inaugurated in 1793 for the second term, and Adams and Jefferson in 1797. Among the many public buildings not yet noticed, the first place belongs to the new city the intersection of Broad and Market streets, a magnificent structure, one of the largest in the country; its dimensions hieing 470 ft. by 4861 ft.; height to the roof, 100 ft. ; to the apex of the dome surmounting the tow( r, 450 feet. It covers, exclusive of the court-yard, an area of nearly 41 acres. The U. S. custom-house, mint, and post-office are noble specimens of architecture, especially the first, of the Doric order, and the last, in the style of the French renaissance. The United States has arsenals at Bridesburg and Gray's ferry road, a navy yard, a naval asylum and naval hospital. The masonic temple, Broad and Filbert streets. of the iNormau style, is claimed to be the finest masonic structure extant. It cost $1,300,0u0. Philadelphia contains a number of public squares, 5 of which date from the foinulation of the city. The great park _of Philadelphia, Fairmount park (see Pam:). is pethaps her crowning attraction; extreme length, 10.89 in.; extreme width, 2 miles. It is divided into sections, called old Fairmount and Lemon hill, East Park, West Park, and Wissahickon Park, In it was held the Centennial exhibition in 1876 (q.v.); some of the buildings remain as standing memorials. There are Published in Philadelphia 12 daily newspapers, with an aggregate circulation of 269,000; 12 leading weeklies, circula tion, 312,200; and 10 religious papers, circulation, 167,000.
Ilistury. —Philadelphia was founded by William Penn in 1682, planned by him, and surveyed by Thomas Dolme. Ills object in founding it he announced thus: "I took charge of the province of Pennsylvania for the Lord's sake. I wanted to afford an asy lum for the good and oppressed of every nation, and to frame a government n Ida might be an example. I desired to show men as free rind happy as they could be; and I had kind views to the Indians." For similar reasons he selected its name; the original site of the city was called by the Indians Coaquenaku, said to mean the grove of tall pines, which is somewhat doubtful, as the Indians called the river Delaware by the sante name. The colony was vigorous from the start, for in 1682 not less than 23 ships arrived with settlers, almost all of whom were Friends. Legislation begun in 1683, and in 1684 the city numbered upward of 300 houses, and a population of 2.500. Penn returned to England, and did not revisit the colony until 1609, when the city numbered 700 houses, and a 'population of 4,500. Before his final departure he incorporated the city, in 1701. Its history for three-quarters of a exhibits the most glaring contradiction of its name, for it is simply a record of discords, arising from the conflicting views of the Friends and the governors of the province on military and financial matters. During
the war of England with France and Spain, the governor, alive to the datiger threatening the colony, created a militia in 1704, a measure peculiarly obnoxious to the Quakers, whom he sought to enlist in its favor by stratagem. On the fair day. 1706, a messenger arrived front Newcastle with the news that the enemy's ships were in thb river and approaching the city. The governor, on horseback with drawn sword, urged the people to arm for the public defensa. A panic prevailed; the ships were placed out of reach of danger; the people hid their valuables and fled; but the Quakers remained calm, and could neither be frightened nor coaxed into the movement. The fraud was discov ered, and the governor displaced. When Lewes, on the Delaware, was plundered by French privateers in 1709, governor Gookin's demand for a grant of £4,000, to aid the queen in the invasion of Canada, was refused by the assembly, which voted instead present of £300. In 1732 Thomas Penn arrived, and in 1739 governor Thomas, in the qua• rel between England and Spain, issued letters of marque and reprisal. In 1747 Benjamin Franklin, by the timely publication of his "Plain Truth," roused e spirit of military enthusiasm among the people. whi‘h eventuated in an armed force of 10,000. also promoted the erection of a battery below the city, which, in 1750, mounted 50 pier es of cannon, and occupied the site of the present U. S. navy yard. In 1744 Whitelield's preaching was very successful. In 1755 a militia bill was passed, and Benjamin Frank lin was Col, of the city regiment. In 1763 the approach of the Paxton boys tilled the city with consternation. In 1767 the increase of pauperism led to-the establishment of ant almshouse. From 1765 to 1774, Philadelphia was prominent in British aggression. The first continental congress met at Carpenter's hall. Sept. •5`, 1774; the second, May 10, 1773, in the state house. Dere, June 15, 1775. col. George Washington, of Virg,inia, was appointed gen. and commander-in-chief of the United States. The declaration of independence was adopted in the state house, .July 4, and proelairned, July 8, 1776. The British held the city from Sept.. 1777, to June, 1778. The battle of Germantown was fought Oct. 4. 1777. The city was the capital of Pennsylvania (except during the British occupation) until 1799, and the scat of the federal government from 1790 to 1800. In the war with Great Britain 1812-14, Philadelphia exhibited notch mar tial spirit. In 1812 the su!ain waterworks at Fairmount were commenced. In flan year yellow fever prevailed. in 1S32 the Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown railroad was completed. From .July 5 to 4 the Asiatic cholera caused 933 deaths. disturbed the city in 1834. '35, '39, '40, and '44. Specie payment was suspended in 1837. The failure of the bank of the United States. iu 1839 for a time prostrated the commerce of the city. The introduction of gas dates from 1836, and the establishment of the first telegraph lines from April 27, 1846. The charter of the city, Mar. 11, 1789, being merely an adaptation of the original act of incorporation to the political changes of the period, the suburbs, in course of time, were created districts, with independent organizations; the inconveniences of the system led ultimately to the consolidation act, 1854, which abolished the suburban municipalities, and made the city co-extensive with the county of Philadelphia. The city lavished its treasure in men and money in the cause of the union. The great sanitary fair, in 1864, in Logan square, netted inure than $1,000,000; and the first regiment of national guards stands eminent for services throughout the war. For particulars relating to the centenary of American independence, see CENTENNIAL.