VICTOR-EMMANUEL I. (Ital. King of Sardinia, the second son oi Victor-Amadeus 111., was born July 24, 1759, and till his accession bore the title of duke of Aosta. He was one of the most determined adversaries of the French revolution ; and on the outbreak of war in 1792, he was chosen to command the Sardinian army, repulsed the French at Gillette, and forced his way to the mouth of the Var, but was ultimately compelled to seek shelter among the Alps. He opposed himself strongly to the con clusion of peace with France in 1796; and from this time lived in southern Italy, and afterward at Cagliari, whence he did not return to Turin till 1814. He had assumed the royal title on his elder brother's abdication in 1802; and the treaty of Paris restored to him Piedmont, Nice, and the half of Savoy in 1814; the treaty of 1815 added the remainder of Savoy, while the congress of Vienna presented him with the duchy of Genoa —so that the little kingdom had profited territorially by its troubles. But the loyal delight of the Savoyards and Piedmontese at the return of their legitimate ruler was speedily quenched by the first acts of his administration. The French institutions to which they
had been long enough accustomed to feel their immense superiority over the system they had supplanted, were abolished, and the old absolutism gradually restored. This change, which was no doubt to a certain extent effected by way of destroying all trace of French domination, by depriving the people of various important, privileges and amenities, restoring old and hated abuses, and increasing taxation, excited wide discontent, which was heightened by the odious religious persecutions of the Vaudois and the Jews; secret societies were formed, and on Mar. 10, 1821, a revolution broke out. The army proclaimed the constitution promulgated by the Spanish Cortes in 1812; and the king, rather than take the oath to it, resigned in favor of his brother, Charles Felix, Mar. 23, 1821. He died at Moncalieri, near Turin, Jan. 10, 1824.