Home >> Chamber's Encyclopedia, Volume 15 >> Vendee La to Viviparous Fish

Chamber's Encyclopedia, Volume 15

Vendee La
Vendee. La, A Maritime Department In The West Of France, Bounded On The W. By The Bay Of Biscay, On The N. By The Department Of Loire-inferieure, And On The S. By That Of Charente-inferieure. Area, 2,587 Sq.m.; Pop. '76, 411,781. The Depart Ment, Which Owes Its Name To A ...

Vendetta
Vendetta, (vengeance), The Term Used To Denote The Practice, As It Prevails In Cor Sica. Of Individuals Taking Private Vengeance Upon Those Who Have Shed The Blood Of Their Relations. In Corsica, When A Murder Has Been Committed, The Murderer Is Pur Sued Not Only By The Officers Of Justice ...

Venesection
Venesection (occasionally Termed Phlebotomy, And Popularly Known As Blood Letting Or Bleeddig) Is An Incision Into A Vein, For The Abstraction Of Blood. Although The Operation May Be Performed On Many Of The Superficial Veins, It Is Restricted In This Country To The Veins At The Bend Of The Elbow. ...

Venezuela
Venezuela, A Republic In The N.w. Of South America, Bounded On The N. By The Caribbean Sea, On The W. By The United States Of Colombia (new Grenada), On The S. By Brazil, And On The E. By British Guiana. Lat. 1° 20' To 12° 25' N.; Long. 59° 45' ...

Venial Sin
Venial Sin (lat. Veniale, Pardonable, From Venia, Pardon), A Term Used, Chiefly In Roman Catholic Theology, To Denote The Less Heinous Class Of Offenses Against The Law Of God. Roman Catholic Divines Infer From Many Passages Of Scripture That There Are Various Grades Of Guilt In The Culpable Actions Of ...

Venice
Venice, A Fortified City Of Northern Italy, One Of The Noblest, Most Famous, And Sin Gular Cities In The World, Is Built Upon A Crowded Cluster Of Islets, In The Lagoon Of The Same Name, On The N.w. Fringe Of The Adriatic Sea, 23 M. E. Of Padua By The ...

Venomous Bites And Stings
Venomous Bites And Stings. Under This Title Are Considered All Wounds Inflicted By Animals Which By Their Bites Or Stings Introduce Poisonous Or Irritating Matter Into The Bodies Of Their Victims. In This Country The Subject Is Of Comparatively Little Importance, Since It Is Very Seldom That The Bite Of ...

Venus
Venus, The Roman Goddess Of Jove, Subsequently Identified With The Greek Aphro Ilite (q.v.). Originally, She Does Not Seem To Have Occupied A Conspicuous Place In The Latin Religion, And Scarcely, If At All, Figures In The History Of Rome Under The Kings; A Circumstance That Throws No Inconsiderable Light ...

Venusberg
Ve'nusberg, The Name Of Several Mountains In Germany, Especially In Swabia; It Appears To Be Met With In Italy Also. It Occurs For The First Time, So Far As Is Known, In A Poem Called The Children Of Limburg, Composed In The Netherlands About 1337 (pub Lished By Van Den ...

Vera Cruz Or Villa
Vera Cruz. Or Villa Nuzva De La Vera Cruz (the New City Of The Real Cross), An Important City On The E. Coast Of Mexico, About 200 In. E. Of The City Of Mexico, With A Pop. Of About 15,000, Composed Of A Motley Collection From Many Nations. The City ...

Verdigris
Verdigris Is The Popular Name For Diacetate Of Copper (2cuo,c,il0.+6aq), A Substance Which Is Largely Used For Commercial Purposes, And As An External Application In Surgery. It Is Prepared On A Large Scale By Piling Up Copper-plates With Alternate Layers Of Mare Or Fermenting Grape-skins. In The Course Of A ...

Vermicides Verxifiiges
Verxifiiges, Vermicides, Or Azitnelnimics, Are Remedies Which Possess The Property Of Destroying Intestinal Worms, Or Of Expelling Them From The Digestive Canal The Only Worms Whose Presence In The Intestinal Canal Is So Common, That The Remedies For Their Destruction And Expulsion Require Special Notice, Are The Two Varieties Of ...

Vermin
Vermin (lat..vertnie, A Worm), A Term Commonly Applied To Small Noxious Animals, Particularly To Those Which, Unless Their Increase Is Checked, Are Apt To Become Exces Sively Numerous. Of Some Of The Applications Of This Term, As To Parasitic Insects, It Is Unnecessary To Say Anything; But It Seems Proper ...

Vermont
Vermont (fr. Nerd Mont, Green Mountain), One Of The Five New England States, And The First State Received After The Adoption Of The Federal Constitution; Lat. 42° 44'-45° N. And Long, 71° 25'-73° 25' W. ; Bounded On The N. By Canada, On The E. By The Connectil Cut River, ...

Vermont
Vermont (ante) Was First Settled By People From Massachusetts, Who Built Fort Bummer Near The Site Of Brattleborough In 1724. Many Other Settlers Soon Followed From Connecticut, And Some Of The Southern Towns That Sprang Up Were Chartered By Massachusetts. New York And New Hampshire, However, Soon Laid Claim To ...

Vernier
Vernier, A Scale, By Which Linear Or Angular Magnitude Can Be Read Off With A Much Greater Degree Of Accuracy Than Is Possible By Mere Mechanical Division And Subdivision, Derives Its Name Frdm Its Inventor, Pierre Vernier, " Capitaine Et Chastellaine Pour Sa Majeste Au Chasteau Dornans," Who Gave A ...

Verona
Vero'na, An Ancient And Interesting City Of Northern Italy, In Venetia, Stands On A Plain Ut The Foot Of The Hills Which Lie At The Base Of The Tyrolese Mountains, 72 M. W. Of Venice By Railway. It Stands On The Adige, By Which It Is Divided Into Two Unequal ...

Versailles
Versailles, A Celebrated City Of France, And Long The Residence Of The French Court, Capital Of The Dep. Of Seine-et-oise, Stands On A Plain, 11 M. S.w. Of Paris By Rail Way. A Fine Avenue, Which Forms Part Of The Road From Paris, Divides The Town Into Two Parts. The ...

Vertebrata
Vertebrata, The Highest And Most Important Of The Animal Sub-kingdoms, Charac Terized By The Universal Presence Of A Backbone, Composed Of A Varying Number Of Small Bones Called Vertebra: (see Skeleton And Spinal Column), Which At Once Serve For The General Support Of The Other Parts, And For The Protection ...

Vertebrate Animals Vertebrata
Vertebrate Animals (vertebrata, Ante). The Following Is A Brief Synop Tical Classification Of The Principal Divisions Of The Vertebrate Branch Of The Animal Kingdom, Including, With Few Exceptions, Only Classes And Orders, And Referring To Various Articles Throughout This Work, For A Description Of Families, Genera, And Species. The Vertebrate ...

Vertigo
Vertigo, In Medicine, Designates A Sensation Which The Patient Describes As One Of Going To Fall, Or Of Turning Rc.ind, Or Of Everything Turning Round Him. It Comes On Without Premonitory Symptoms, Excepting A Sense Of Disturbed Balance, Which May Either Precede, Accompany, Or Follow It. Associated With It Are ...

Vespasianus
Vespasia'nus, Titus Flavius, Roman Emperor, Was A Native Of Reath, In The Sabine Country, Of Humble Origin. After Serving With Distinction In Various Military Grades In Thrace, Britain, And Africa, He Was Sent By Nero To Conduct The Jewish War. 'this Appointment He Owed To His Recognized Merits, For He ...

Vespers
Vespers (lat. Vespere, In The Evening), One Of The Canonical Hours Of The Breviary, Called Also Anciently Lueernarium, From Lueerna, A Lamp. It Is A Service Of Very Ancient Use, Being Plainly Referred To In The Apostolical Constitutions, And Is Noticeable As That One Among The Canonical Hours Which In ...

Vestry
Vestry, In English Parishes, Is A Meeting Of The Inhabitants Of The Parish Assembled To Deliberate On Some Matter Which They Have A Right To Decide (see Parish). The Ves Try Is The Regular Organ Through Which The Parish Speaks; And In Numerous Matters Relating To Church-rates, Highways, Baths, And ...

Vesuvius
Vesuvius, A Well-known Volcano, Is Situated Near The E. Shore Of The Bay Of Naples, About 10 M. From The City Of That Name. It Is A Solitary Mountain, Rising Majestically From The Plain Of Campania, Having At The Base A Circumference Of About 30 M., And / Dividing, At ...

Vetch
Vetch, Vida, A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Leguminos®, Suborder Papilion (teem, Having A Tuft Of Hairs On The Style Beneath The Stigma, Nine Stamens United, And One Free. To This Genus The Bean (q.v.) Is Generally Referred. The Species, However, Are Mostly Climbing,plants, Annuals, With Pinnate Leaves ...

Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Medicine (let. Veterina, Beasts Of Burden; Probably For Vehiterina, From Mho, To Carry) Embraces The Medical Management Of The Domestic Animals, And Appears To Have Been Studied By The Ancient Egyptians As Well As By The Greeks And Romans. Hippocrates Contributed A Treatise On Equine Disorders; Coluniella And Vegetius ...

Veto
Veto, In Politics, The Power Which One Branch Of A Legislature Of A Country May Have To Negative The Resolutions Of Another Branch. In The United Kingdom, The Power Of The Crown In The Act Of Legislation Is Confined To A Veto—a Right Of Rejecting, And Not Resolving. The Crown ...

Veuillot
Veuillot, Louts, French Journalist And Author, B. In 1813, At Boynes En Gatinais (loiret). The Son Of A Small Cooper, He Was Sent To A School Near Paris, From Which He Was Transferred In 1826 To A Lawyer's Office. He Chose The Profession Of Journalism, And Filled Several Engagements On ...

Via Maia
Via-maia, A Remarkable Defile In The Canton Of Grisons, Switzerland, Is A Portion Of The Hinterrheiuthal (see Brine) Which Lies Between Thesis And Zillis. The Sides A The Cleft, Which Is About 2 M. In Length, Are Immense Walls Of Rock, Almost Parallel, To Each Other, And So Hard That ...

Vicar
Vicar (lat. Vicavius, From 'deem, I.e., Gerens, Acting In The Place Of Another), The Title Given To The Substitute, Whether Temporary Or Permanent, Employed To Act In The Place Of Certain Ecclesiastical Officials, Whether Individuals Or Corporations; As Of The Pope, A Bishop, A Chapter, A Parish Priest, Etc. Vicars ...

Vicenza
Vicenza, A Handsome City Of Venetia, Beautifully Situated At The Confluence Of The Bacchigloine And Retrone Rivers, 42 In. W. Of Venice By Railway. The Rivers Are Crossed By Eight Bridges, One Of Which, A Bold, Single Arch, Is Attributed To Palladio, Who Was A Native Of The City, And ...

Vico Giambattista
Vico. Giambattista (or Giovanni Battista), A Jurist, Philosopher, And Critic, Was Born At Naples, 1668, Spent The Whole Of His Life In That City, And Died There In 1744. He Was The Son Of A Small Book-seller. He Was Educated By The Jesuits, And Afterward Studied Forthe Bar. Weak Health ...

Victor Amadeus
Victor-amadeus, The Name Of Three Sovereigns Of The House Of Savoy.—victon Amadeus I., Duke Of Savoy, Succeeded His Father, Charles-emanuel The,great, In 1630, And Carried On The War With France; But In 1631 He Was F Irced To Surrender Pignerol, La Perouse, Ang,rone, And Luzerne To France, In Exchange For ...

Victor Emmanuel I
Victor-emmanuel I. (ital. King Of Sardinia, The Second Son Oi Victor-amadeus 111., Was Born July 24, 1759, And Till His Accession Bore The Title Of Duke Of Aosta. He Was One Of The Most Determined Adversaries Of The French Revolution ; And On The Outbreak Of War In 1792, He ...

Victor Emmanuel Il
Victor-emmanuel Il, The First King Of A United Italy, Was The Son Of Charles-albert (q.v.),of Sardinia, And Was Born Mar. 14, 1820. He Was, A Pupil Of The Jesuits, But Under His Father's Superintendence Received An Excellent Education; And, Being Heir To The Throne, He Commanded, In Accordance With An ...

Victoria
Victoria, Although One Of The Youngest, And, In Point Of Area, The Smallest Of The Colonies Of The Australasian Group, Is Already The Most Important. In Extent Of Com Merce, Indeed, It Takes Precedence Of All Other Colonies—india Alone Excepted. The Extreme Modernness, So To Say, Of The Australian Colonial ...

Victoria I
Victoria I. Queen Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland, Daughter And Only Child Of Edward, Duke Of Kent, 4th Son Of George Iii., Was Born At Kensing Ton Palace, May 24, 1819. Her Mother, Victoria Mary Louisa, Was 4th Daughter Of Fran Cis, Duke Of Saxe-coburg Saalfeld, ...

Vidocq
Vidocq, Fitax9ots-jules,who Acquired Notoriety As A Detective-officer Of Police At Paris, Was Born, July 23, 1775, At Arms, Where His Father Was A Baker. On The Principle Of Set A Thief To Catch A Thief His Earlier Life May Be Regarded As An Almost Invaluable Apprenticeship To The Profession In ...

Vienna
Vienna (ger.- Wien, Lat. Vindobona, Afterward Faviana), Capital Of The Austrian Empire, Stands On A Plain At The Foot Of The Last Hills Of The Wiener Wald, Which Forms The Eastern Extremity Of The Alps. East Of It Extends A Vast Plain, As Far As The Eye Can See, Away ...

Vieta
Vieta. (otherwise Given Viet, Viette, Or De Viette, And By Himself Latinized Into Viet/elio, Francois, The Most Eminent French Mathematician Of The 16th C., Was B. At Fontenai-le-comte, Near La Rochelle, In 1540. Of His Early Life And Education We Know Nothing, And Almost All Our Acquaintance With The Details, ...

Vigil
Vigil (lat. Fr. Riggo, I Watch), A Preparatory Time Of Devotion, Which, By Very Ancient Christian Usage, Went Before The More Solemn Festivals, And Especially Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, And The Principal Martyrs' Days. In English, It Was Called " Eve Or "even," A Name Which Is Still Retained In Relation ...

Vihira
Vihira (which, In Sanskrit, Means " Walking For Pleasure Or Amusement") Is, With The Buddhists (q.v.), The Name Of Their Temples And Convents. Originally, It Designated The Hall Or Halls Where The Buddha S'fikyamuni, And The Priests By Whom Lie Was Accom Panied, Used To Meet: But When These Halls ...

Villa
Villa, A Term Now Applied To Detached Suburban Residences With About One Acre Or Less Ground-attached To Them. In The Time Of The Romans, The Villa Was A Cluster Of Buildings In The Country, Forming A Sort Of Private Town, And Containing In One The Resi Dences Of The Proprietor, ...

Vincennes
Vincennes, A Commune And Market-t. Of France, In The Dep. Of Seine, 5 M. Of The Louvre In Paris. In Reality, The Town Is Merely A Great Fortress And Barracks, And Is Famous For Its Arsenal, And For Its School For The Practice Of Shooting. At The Latter, The Chasseurs ...

Vine
Vine, A Term Sometimes Used To Designate Any Climbing Plant, Especially If Shrub Bery, But Also More Particularly Applied To The Species Of The Genus Rills, Of The Natural Order Ritacece. This Genus Has Pentamerous Flowers (5-toothed Calyx, 5 Petals, 5 Sta Mens), And Has The Petals United Into A ...

Vinegar
Vinegar Is That Form Of Acetic Acm (q.v.) Which Is Generally Preferred For Culin Ary Purposes, And Which Is Made By The Fermentation Of Vegetable In Great Britain, It Is Manufactured On A Large Scale By The Fermentation Of Malt; On The Continent Of Europe, It Is As Largely Made ...

Vinet
Vinet, Alexarinite-ronotrire, Swiss Divine And Author, Was B: At Lausanne, June 17, 1797, And Received His Education In His Native City As A Student Of The Protestant Ehurch, Of Which He Was Ordained A Minister In 1819. From An Early Age He Showed A Passionate Fondness For The Study Of ...

Vinic Acids
Vinic Acids, An Important Group Of Acids, Whose Mode Of Formation May Be Thus Described: When A Mixture Of Concentrated Sulphuric Acid With Any Of The Alcohols Is Heated To About 212% Chemical Action Takes Place, And The Result Is The Formation Of A New Coupled Or Conjugated Acid, In ...

Violet
Violet ( A Genus Of Herbaceous Plants, Mostly Perennial, Of The Natural Order Violacem. They Have A Short Stem, Or Are Stemless, Having In The Latter Case A Short Root Stock (rhizome); The Leaves Are Alternate, And Have Long Stalks; The Flowers Have Five Petals, Different In Form And Size, ...

Violin
Violin (diminutive From Viol), A Stringed Musical Instrument Played With The Bow. Like Other Bow-instruments Now In Use, It Consists Of A Wooden Sonorous Chest, Formed Of Two Slightly Arched Surfaces, Known As The Back And Belly, United By Sides Or Ribs, And With A Curve Or Hollow On Each ...

Viper
Viper, Triplra, A Genus Of Serpents Of The" Family Viperidce (q.v.), Having The Head Depressed, Oblong -ovate, Somewhat Compressed Before, And Wider Behind The Eyes; The Head Covered With Shields, The Tail With Two Rows Of Plates Beneath. Some Naturalists Divide The Genus Into Two: Vipira, Having One Rather Large ...

Virgiiiiiis
Virgiiiiiis (or, As It Is More Accurately Spelled, Vergilitis) Na'ro, Pum.rus, After Homer, The Greatest Epic Poet Of Antiquity, Was Born In The Consulship Of Crassus And Pompey, Oct. 15, 70, B.c., At Andes, A Village Not Far From Mantua. It Is Probable That His Father Was The Proprietor Of ...

Virgil
Virgil, The Magician, Is The Character In Which The Great Roman Poet Presented Him Self To The Popular Imagination Of The Middle Ages. The Origin Of This Singular Delusion May Be Thus Explained. From A Very Early Period—almost, We May Say, From The Age In Which He Flourished—virgil Was Acknowledged ...

Virginia
Virginia, One Of The Thirteen Original United States Of America, Lies In Lat. 30° 31' —39° 27' D., And Long. 75° 37' W.; Bounded On The N. By Pennsylvania, Mary Land, And West Virginia, E. By Maryland And The Atlantic, A. By North Carolina And Tennessee, And W. By Kentucky ...

Viriathus
Viriathus, A Lu'sitanian (i.e., Portuguese) Patriot, Who Energetically Strove To Pre Trent His Country From Falling Under The Dominion Of The Romans. He Flourished In The Sd C, Bm. Originally A Shepherd, He Afterward Became A Guerrilla Chief, And Appears To Have Supported Himself (like Many Of The Lusitanian Borderers) ...

Virus
Vi'rus (the Let. For A Poisonous Liquid) Is A Term Used In Medicine To Signify Those Mysterious Poisonous Agencies Which Produce Zymotic Diseases (q.v.), Such As Small-pox, Measles, Scarlatina, The Various Forms Of Continued Fever, Ague, Whooping-cough, Cholera, Syphilis, Glanders, Hydrophobia, Etc. While Each Of These Morbid Poisons (as They ...

Visconti
Visconti, A Lombard Family Which Rose To Sovereign Rank In Northern Italy In The 13th C., And Was Equally Distinguished By The Share It Took In The Political Contests Of The Middle Ages, And By The Services Which It Rendered To Literature And Science. The Name Visconti Is Derived From ...

Visconti_2
Visconti, A Family Of Archaeologists And Architects, The First Of Whom To Rise To Prom Inence Was Giovanni Battista Visconti, A Native Of Sarzana, Who Settled At Rome, And, After Making For Himself A Great Name As An Archeologist, Succeeded Wincklemaan As Pre Fect Of The Antiquities Of Rome. He ...

Vishnu
Vishnu Is The Second God Of The Hindu Triad, But Is Considered By His Worshipers To Be The Supreme Deity Of The Hindu Pantheon. See Titimtittr And Vaisiin'avas. The Word Is Derived, By S'ankara (q.v.), In His Commentary On The Thousand Names Of Vishnu, And By Other Commentators After Him, ...

Visible Speech
Visible Speech, A System Of Alphabetic Characters, Each Of Which Represents The Configuration Of The Mouth Which Produces The Sound. The System Is The Invention Of Mr. Melville Bell—the Well-known Elocutionist, Formerly Professor Of Elocution In Uni Versity College, London—and Was Published 111..1867, Under The Title Of Visible Speech Mr. ...

Vision
Vision, The Act Of Seeing; That Faculty Of The Mind By Reesras Of Which, Through Its Appropriate Material Organ, The Eye (q.v ), We Are Percipient Of The Visible Appearances Of The External World. Considered In The Latter Signification, Vision Includes Questions Of High Importance In Relation To Some Of ...

Vistula
Vistula, (lat. Vistula Or Thu/a, Ger. Iveicksel, Russ. Wis/a), An Imp6rtant River Of Austria, Poland, And Prussia, Rises In Austrian Silesia, Near The Frontier Of Galicia, In A Morass In The Jablunka Mountains, 15 In. S.e. Of Teschen (q.v.), And At The Height Of 2,000 Ft. Above Sea-level. Formed By ...

Viswamitra
Viswamitra Is One Of The Most Interesting Personages In The Ancient .history Of India. According To The Aitar6ya Brilliman'a. (see Veda), His Father Was Glithin; And In A Remoter Degree Viswilmitra Derived His Pedigree From The King I'uniraras (q.v.). Who Was An Ancestor Of Kus'ika. In The Mahilbhilmta, Rilmayan'a, And ...

Vital Statistics
Vital Statistics. The Annual Reports Of The Registrars-general For England And Scotland (see Registration) Form A Valuable Storehouse Of Information On The Various Subjects Connected With Vital Statistics. Besides Detailed Abstracts For Each Year Of Births, Marriages, And Deaths, Tables Of The Fatal Diseases, Classified In Combination With Ages, Are ...

Vitelliiis
Vitelliiis, Anuts, Roman Emperor, Son Of Lucius Vitellius The Prince Of The Syco. Pliants Who Surrounded Caligula, But Who, According To Tacitus, In His Provincial Administration Exhibited The Virtues Of A Former Age," Was Born Sept. 24, 15 A.d., And Through His Father's Influence At Court Became Consul, 48 A.d., ...

Vitrified Forts
Vitrified Forts, The Name Given To Certain Remarkable Stone Iuclosures Bearing Traces Of The Action Of Fire, About Fifty Of Which Exist In Various Parts Of Scotland. They Are Generally Situated On A Small Hill, A Considerable Valley, And Consist Of A Wall, Which May Have Originally Been About 12 ...

Vitriol
Vitriol (derived From The Latin Ritrurn, Glass) Is A Term Which The Early Chemists Applied To Glass-like Salts, Distinguishing Them By Their Colors Into Blue Vitriol, Green Vitriol, And White Vitriol. Blue Vitriol Is Still The Popular Name For Sulpha;:e Of Copper, Which May Be Obtained On A Large Scale ...

Vitruvius
Vitru'vius, The Name Of Two Roman Architects, The Most Celebrated Of Whom Is /dances Vitruvius Pow°, About Whom We Have No Direct Information Further Than The Mention Of His Name By Pliny And Frontinus, Though, From The References To Him Self In His Own Work. We Can Gather That In ...

Viverride
Viverride, A Family Of Carnivora, Having The Body Elongated. The Claws Partly Retractile, The Pupil Of The Eye Circular During The Day, And Not Contracted Into A Vertical Line As In The Felidtv, And In General A Strong Musky Odor, Proceeding From A Secretion In A Pouch Near The Anus. ...

Viviparous Fish
Viviparous Fish. It Has Been Mentioned In The Articles Fishes And Reproduc Tion That A Few Species Of Fishes Are Viviparous, Or Rather Ovoviviparous, The Eggs Being Hatched Within The Ovary. An Example Of This Occurs In The Viviparous Blenny Of The British Coasts. See Ble.nny. But It Is The ...