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VIENNA (Ger.- Wien, Lat. Vindobona, afterward Faviana), capital of the Austrian empire, stands on a plain at the foot of the last hills of the Wiener Wald, which forms the eastern extremity of the Alps. East of it extends a vast plain, as far as the eye can see, away to the Carpathians, which are visible on a clear day in the distance. On the n., the hills approach within a half-a-dozen rn. of the city, and extend uninteruptedly, to the w., to the Tyrolese Alps. An arm of the Danube (called a canal) passes along the n.e. side of the city, and separates it from the suburb of Leopoldstadt. Into this arm flows the foul and (when not swollen by rains) insignificant stream, called the Wien, from which the city takes its name. Vienna consists of the old city or inner town, called the Stadt, with narrow and rr streets, and of a circle of suburbs, nine in . number, completely surrounding it. Aronnd the Stadt, and separating it from the suburbs, is a ring space upon which were formerly the fortifications, leveled in 1858. This space is now being rapidly covered with buildings, of which the principal form part of the Ringstrasse, a handsome boulevard, in many places 70 yards wide. Besides the internal fortifications just mentioned, there is an external ring with rampart and fosse, which is still preserved as the boundary of the city imposts. These fortifications are called the lines, and at one time encircled both suburbs and city; the former are now, however, rapidly extending themselves outside. Unlike most other European cities, the old part of the city is the most fashionable. In the Stadt are the palaces of the emperor and of some of the principal nobility, many stately mansions, the public offices, the finest churches, most of the museums and public collections, the colleges, the exchange, and the best shops. Since the erection of the Ringstrasse and other build ings upon the site of the old glacis, however, very many of the aristocracy have gone there to live. The suburbs are laid out in wide streets, many of which, being unpaved, are extremely dusty in summer, and very muddy in winter. As a rule. the houses are let in "flats," almost the only exception to this being the palaces of the higher nobility, and in some cases even these consist only of the two lower stories of the building. Among the principal squares are the Josephsplatz and the Burghof (the latter the court of the palace); the outer Burgplatz, which is laid out with grass and flowers, and in which stands the Burgthor; the Heuer Markt, ant Hof, and Frieung. The latter three are in the heart of the city, contain many picturesque buildings, and are otherwise interesting, standing as they do in much the same relation to Vienna as the Grassmarket to Edin burgh. Vienna is the see of an archbishop; and the chief of its many churches is the cathedral of St. Stephens, This church is 354 ft. long, 229 ft. broad, and 80 ft. high, and has a very beautiful tower, 450 ft. high, erected in 1860-64, to replace the former structure, which was removed because of its unsafe condition. Its different parts have

been built at many different periods, the choir having been commenced in 1359, while the nave dates a century later. The church of the Augustines is remarkable for h.'s monument of the archduchess Christina of Saxe-Teschen, one of the most successful works of Canova. The most beautiful church in Vienna, and one of the most beautiful in the whole of Germany, is the Votiv-Xirche, built in commemoration of the emperor's escape from assassination in 1853. It is a Gothic church not completely finished till 1878, with two towers and spires, and covered with delicate and beautiful tracery and carving. The imperial royal palace is an ancient building, consisting of various parts, erected at different times. Adjoining the palace, or forming part of it, are the imperial library (410,000 vols.-12,000 printed before 1500—and 20,000 manuscripts), the treasury, the cabinet of coins and etc. Among the other collections of interest are the belvedere, including the Ambras collection (pictures, sculptures, and antiquities); the arsenal; the Liechenstein gallery, and count Harrach's collection (pictures), and the Albertinfid(drawings and engravings), the latter containing the orienal study of Raphael's "Transfiguration." The polytechnic institution (for instruction in in practical science, etc.) is attended by about 1000 pupils, and in connection with it there is a capital technological museum. The university (founded 1365) has upward of 3,900 students on its roll, a staff of over 200 professors and lecturers, and a library of 212,000 vols. As a school of medicine it is celebrated all over the continent. The principal places of public resort for the lower classes are the gardens of the palace at Schonbrunn, the Augarten. and the Prater, the latter being probably the largest park in Europe. The buildings of the great exhibition of 1873 were in it. The nave of this immense exhibition was 2,952 ft. long, and in the center of it was a great rotunda, designed by 3Ir. Scott Russell, 34-4 ft. diameter. Only this rotunda, and the part of the buildings immediately connected with it, are to remain standing permanently. Although possessing many points of interest, especially in its eastern exhibits, the exhibition did not succeed financially. Vienna contains eight or nine theaters, of which the best three, including the magnificent opera-house, are in the Stadt. The manufacture of silk stuffs, and also shawl-weaving, are important branches of Viennese industry. The manu facture of meerschaum pipes, gloves, and all kinds of fancy leather articles, is also carried on greatly. Very extensive works are at present in progress to bring the Danube close to the city, and improve its navigation. When these are completed, a new suburb will spring up to the n.e., and Vienna will be in many ways very much altered. Pop. '75 of Vienna and suburbs proper, about 850,000; but including the outlying villages (as, e.g., Ftinfhaus, DObling, etc.), in which many well-to-do Viennese reside, the popula tion is a little over a million.