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servants and size

VILLA, a term now applied to detached suburban residences with about one acre or less ground-attached to them. In the time of the Romans, the villa was a cluster of buildings in the country, forming a sort of private town, and containing in one the resi dences of the proprietor, farmer, and servants, and all the necessary offices and other, accommodation for the cattle—the gardens, pleasure-grounds, etc. These villas were sometimes of enormous size, but they do not seem to have been built on any regular architectural plan, so as to produce an effect commensurate with their extent. The villa was divided into several parts, according to their uses: 1. The villa urban was the portion in which the proprietor resided, and was laid out, as the name indicates, in a manner very similar to that of a town-house. The size and style of this part depends, of course, on the pleasure or quality of the master. It contained the eating-rooms, bed

chambers, baths, covered porticos, walks, and terraces 2. The villa rustics was the portion set apart for the stabling, servants, etc., and the accommodation for the Its extent depended on the size of the farm and number of cattle. 3. The villa fructuaria was for the wine, oil, and other produce. The number of servants accommodated in villa was very great. The livery-servants, along with the gardeners for the pleasure grounds, comedians, musicians, etc., belonged to the villa urbane. The villieus presided over the others, including the servants for tilling the land, the herdsmen, shepherds, goatherds, swineherds, poulterers, etc. There were also frequently several artisans, kept constantly on the premises, such as smiths, carpenters, etc.