VISTULA, (Lat. Vistula or Thu/a, Ger. IVeicksel, Russ. Wis/a), an imp6rtant river of Austria, Poland, and Prussia, rises in Austrian Silesia, near the frontier of Galicia, in a morass in the Jablunka mountains, 15 in. s.e. of Teschen (q.v.), and at the height of 2,000 ft. above sea-level. Formed by three head-waters, the White, the Little, and the Black Vistulas, the Vistula flows n.w. a few miles to the village of Weichsel, where its course is marked by a fall of 180 ft., and thence to the town of Schwarzwasser, where it leaves the mountains. At this point the Vistula turns n.e., and flows in this direction past Cracow, to its confluence with the San, 10 m. below Sandomierz, forming through out nearly the whole of this part of its course the boundary between Galicia and Poland. From its confluence with the San the river turns to the n., enters Poland, which it traverses in a general u.w. direction, passing Lublin, Warsaw, and Lipno. Leaving
Poland it enters the kingdom of Prussia, flowing w.n.w. to its junction with the Bom berger canal; thence n.n.e., past Kuhn and Schwetz, to Grandenz, where it turns n. and flows in that direction to its embouchure in the Baltic sea, which it enters by several mouths. About 10 in. below Marienwerder it throws off an arm called the Nogat, which, taking a n.e. direction, and after flowing 32 in., enters the Friscbes Haff by about 20 mouths. The main stream continues to flow n. for 115 m.," dividing, however, into two branches, one of which flows into the Frisches Haff, the other into the gulf of Dantzic at Weichselmunde, 3 m. below Dantzic. The Vistula receives front the right the Bug. the San, the Dunajec, and the Wieprz; from the left, the Pilza and Brahe. The Vistula is 690 m. in entire length. It becomes navigable at Cracow for small vessels, and for large vessels at the confluence of the San.