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Article Iii

citizens, supreme and treason

ARTICLE III., Sec. 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may front time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a com pensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, iu law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors. other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all

the other eases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the con gress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall he by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.

Sec. 3. treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.

No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

The 'congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attain der of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attaiuted.