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Bears Paw Clam

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CLAM, BEAR'S PAW, Ilippopus maculatus, a bivalve mollusk of the South Seas, of the family tridacnidw. The shell is described as "perhaps the most beautiful of bivalves, whether in regard to form, texture, or color." It is therefore a favorite shell for orna mental purposes. It is transversely ovate, ventricose, ribbed, roughened with scaly inequalities, white, and spotted with red or purple.

CLAN (Gael. elann, Manx cloan, meaning "children," i.e., descendants of a com mon ancestor). This word became incorporated with the English language at least as early as the 17th c., to mean a body of men confederated together by common ancestry or any other tie, and in this sense it is used both by Milton and Dryden. It came to be applied almost exclusively to the several communities of the. Scottish highlanders, as divided front each other topographically and by distinctive surnames. The word has sometimes been applied to those great Irish septs which at one time were a sort of separate states; but these, with their characteristic forms of internal government, were completely broken down by the power of the English predominance, before the word came into familiar use in the English language. In Scotland it was used in the 16th c. to designate the free hooters of the border as well as the Celtic tribes of the highlands; and there were two characteristics common to both—their predatory habits, and their distribution into communities, each with a common surname. In the act of the Scottish parliament of 15S7, for instance, which requires landlords to find security for the con duct of their tenants, it is provided that those "who have their lands lying in far high lands or borders, they making residence themselves in the inlands, and their tenants and inhabitants of their lands being of clans, or dependars on chieftains or the cap tains of the clans, whom the landlords are noways able to command, but only get their mails (or rents) of them, and no other service or obedience, shall noways be subject to this act but in manner following." Then follow provisions for enforcing the law directly on the chieftains or captains of those clans residing in territories where the owner of the soil—generally the merely nominal owner, in terms of some useless charter—had no control. It was always the policy of the old law of Scotland to require all the highland clans to have some respectable representative—a man of rank and sub stance, if possible—who should be security at court for their good conduct. Clans that could find no security were called " broken clans," and their members were out laws, who might be bunted down like wild beasts. The Macgregors were a celebrated broken C., whom the law pursued for centuries with savage ingenuity. Among other inflictions their name was proscribed, and such members of theC. as endeavored tolive

by peaceful industry in the lowlands, adopted derivations from it; hence we have the names of Gregor, Gregory, and Gregorson or Grierson. The clans are never treated in the old Scots acts with any respect, or otherwise than as nests of thieves and cut throats. The following passage in the act of 15S1 (c. 112), which virtually authorizes any lowlander, injured by any member of a C., to take vengeance against all or any of his clansmen, contains a picturesque, though, for a legislative enactment, certainly a very highly colored account of the social condition of the highland clans in the 16th century. "The said clans of thieves for the most part are companies of wicked men, coupled in wickedness by occasion of their surnames or near dwellings together, or through keeping society in theft or receipt of theft, not subjected to the ordinar course of justice, nor to ony anc landlord that will make them answerable to the laws, but com monly dwelling on sundry men's lands against the good-will of their landlords, where through true men oppressed by there. can have no remeid at the hands of their masters, but for their defense are oftentimes constrained to seek redress of their skaitlis of the hail clan, or such of them as they happen to apprehend. Likewise the hail clan com monly bears feud for the hurt received by any member thereof, whether by execution of laws, or order of justice, or otherwise." The highland clans are often carelessly spoken of as a feudal institution, but in reality their distinctive character cannot be better understood than by keeping in view some peculiarities which set them in com plete contrast with the feudal institutions of Britain. All feudality has a relation to land, from the serf bound to the soil through the free vassal who possesses it, up to the superior or feudal lord, who commands services out of it. The descent to all rights con nected with it is hereditary. Among the highlanders, on the other hand, the relation was patriarchal, and had no connection with the land, save as the common dwelling place of the tribe. It often happened, as the acts above quoted explain, that the head of a C. and the owner, according to feudal law, of the estates occupied by it, were two different persons. Clans did not acknowledge the purely feudal hereditary principle, and would elevate to the chiefship a brother or an uncle, in preference to the son of a deceased chief. It is a curious illustration of this, that in the rebellion of 1715, the notorious lord Lovat, who had just returned from France, being acknowledged by the C. Fraser as their chief, drew them away from the rebel army, to which the proprietor of the Fraser estates had endeavored to attach them, and arrayed them on the govern ment side.