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Ccentrus

king, france, died and lie

CCENTRUS. See CESTOID WORMS.

JAcquEs, d. 1456; a native of Bourges, France, who opened trade between his country and the states of the Levant. In 1436, Charles VII. made hint master of the mint just established in Paris, and in 1440 his family were ennobled. In 1444, he was sent as one of the royal comiaissioners to preside over the new parliament of Langue doc, and in 1448 he represented the French king at the court of Nicholas V., who treated him with great distinction, him in the papal palace, and granted him a special license to traffic with the infidels. The power and fame of C. were now at their highest. Ile had represented France in three embassies, and had furnished the sinews of the war that had driven the English from Normandy. Ile was invested with various offices of dignity, and possessed the largest fortune ever amassed by a private French citizen. The sea vas covered with his ships; he had 300 factors iu his employ, and houses of business in all the chief cities of France. He had built hotels and chapels, and had founded colleges in Paris, at Montpellier, and Bourges. Dealing in all things—money and arms, peltry and jewels, brocades and woolens—broker, banker, farmer—he had absorbed all the trade of the country, and merchants complained that they could make no gains on account " that Jacques." Very soon, however, he was a broken man and a fugitive. Charles was surrounded with the great merchants; he was as unstable

as water, and always needy. C. had to go the way of others who had been the friends of the king. In Feb., 1449, Agnes Sorel, the king's mistress, died of puerperal fever. But it was charged that Louis (the dauphin) had procured 11m:death; and a considerable time after she died, C., who was one of her executors, was accused of having poisoned her. There was not even a pretext for such a charge; nevertheless, the needy and unscrupulous king, in July, 1451, ordered his arrest and the seizure of his goods. reserv ing for himself a large sum to carry on the war in Guienne. lie was tried and convicted by men whose business it was to convict him without regard to the evidence or to justice; and lie was condemned to do public penance, topay to the king a sum equal to $5,000,000 of modern money, and to remain a prisoner until the judgment was fully satisfied. All his property was confiscated, and lie was subject to exile during the royal pleasure. In 1455, he managed to escape into Provence, and, though closely pursued, succeeded in reaching Rome, where he was well received by the pope, who was fitting out an expedi tion against the Turks. C. was given the command of 16 galleys, but he was taken ill at Chios, died, and was buried on the island.