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Clarke

time, loud and god

CLARKE, Dr. SAMUEL, an eminent philosopher and theologian, was b. at Norwich, Oct. 11, 1675, and educated at Cambridge. The system of Descartes at that time held almost universal sway; but this failing to satisfy his mind, he adopted the views of his contemporary and friend, Newton. Along with philosophy, he pursued the study of theology and philology. He was some time chaplain to the bishop of Norwich, a pro moter of science; he afterwards became chaplain to queen Anne, and in 1709, rector of St. James's. By his work on the Trinity (1712), in which he denied that that doctrine was held by the early church, he brought himself into considerable trouble. The con vocation of bishops, who wished to avoid controversy, contented themselves with an explanation, anything but satisfactory, and a promise from C. to be silent for the future on that subject. His views were of the kind known as For the rest, C. was a vigorous antagonist of the freethinkers of his time; in opposi tion to Dodwell, he sought to demonstrate the immortality of the soul from the idea of an immaterial being. Ile died May 17, 1729. His most famous work is Demon

stration of the Being and Attributes of God (Loud. 1705); connected with it in subject is his Verity and Certitude of Natural and Revealed Religion (Loud. 1703). At the tion of the princess of Wales, who was inclined to the doctrines of Leibnitz, C. entered into a keen correspondence with that philosopher on space and time, and their relations to God, on moral freedom, etc. This correspondence was published under the title of Collection of Papers which passed between Leibnitz and Clarke in the years 1715 and 1716 (Load. 1717). In his ethical disquisitions, he seeks to find a foundation for moral obligation in a peculiar principle, which: he calls the fitness of things, or the relations of things established from eternity by God. He published a valuable edition of Cwsar (Loud. 1712); that of Homer (Loud. 1729-46) was completed by his son. A col fleeted edition of his philosophical works appeared in 4 vols., Lond., 1738-42.