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coast-guard, time, vessels and kingdom

COAN1A, a river of Lower Guinea, western Africa, which, after a course of about 500 or 600 in., enters the Atlantic s. of St. Paul de Loanda, in lat. about 0" 10's. It is navigable for a considerable distance, but a bar at its mouth renders it inaccessible save to small vessels.

an organization formerly intended to prevent smuggling merely, but now constituted so as to serve as a defensive force also.• The old coast-guardsmen were in the employment of the customs department; they were posted along the shore at spots commanding extensive views of the beach, and were expected to be always on the look-out for smugglers. In 1856, the coast-guard was transferred to the admiralty, and under this arrangement the admiralty may, from time to time, issue orders for the augmentation of the coast-guard. not to exceed 10,000 men in all. Lands, not exceed ing three acres each, may be bought by the admiralty for coast-guard stations. The coasts of the United Kingdom have been divided into 9 districts. Each district is under a navy captain, who has an iron-clad guard-ship at some port in the district. All the revenue cruisers and defense-gunboats are attached as tenders to the ships, and are manned therefrom. The able seamen, borne on the ships' books, and employed on shore in coast-guard .service, are in three classes—chief boatmen, commissioned boatmen, and boatmen. They receive high sea-pay, besides 1s. 4d. per day in lieu of provisins, and house-rent and medical attendance free. In war-time, all of these

men mity be called upon to serve as regular sailors on board ship; but their families are allowed to live rent-free during this time. The coast-guard are taught naval gunnery, gunboat, exercise, and the serving of land-batteries. The guard-ships are also employed as training-ships for the navy. The whole of the coast-guard com prised, in 1879, 4,300 men, and the charge for their maintenance and that of their ships is about £500,000.

the commerce carried on by sea between the different ports of the same country. In Great Britain, "coastwise" is defined to mean "from any one part of the United Kingdom to any other part thereof." Vessels engaged in this com merce are subject to different rates and regulations from over-sea traders, and the mas ters must keep books showing that their cargoes come strictly within the definition of coasting-trade. Formerly. no goods or passengers were allowed to be carried front one port of the United Kingdom to another, except in British vessels; but this restric tion was repealed in 1854. and the coasting-trade of Great Britain is now open to all the world. In other countries, the exclusive policy still prevails. The regulations under which the coasting-trade are conducted are contained in the customs consoli dation act, 16 and 17 Viet. c. 107 (see 3.1`Culloch's Commercial Dictionary).