Home >> Chamber's Encyclopedia, Volume 4 >> Coca to Condor

Chamber's Encyclopedia, Volume 4

Coca
Coca, Erytkroxylon Coca, A Shrub Of The Natural Order Erythrorylacem, Of Which The Leaves Are Much Used By The Inhabitants Of Peru And Bolivia As A Narcotic And Stimulant. The Dried Leaves Are Chewed With A Little Finely Powdered Unslaked Lime, Or With The Alkaline Ashes Of The Quinoa (q.v.), ...

Coccus
Coccus (gr. Kokko•, Kermes), A Genus Of Insects Of The Order Hemiptera, Sub-order Homoptera, The Typo Of A Family, Coccicice, Allied To The Aphis (q.v.) Family, Although In Many Respects Very Distinct. The Coccidal Are Sometimes Called Scale Insects, And By The French Gallinsectes (latiuized By Some Entomologists Into Gallinsecta), ...

Cochermouth
Cochermouth, A Parliamentary Borough In The W. Of Cumberland, At The Confluence Of The Cocker And Derwent, 25 M. S.w. Of Carlisle. It Is Delightfully Situated In An Agricultural District, And Has A Promenade A Mile Long Along The Derwent. The Ruins Of A Castle, Founded In The End Of ...

Cochin
Cochin, Once The Capital Of The Principality Above Described, But Now A Seaport Of The District Of Malabar, In The Presidency Of Madras, Stands In Lat. 9" 58' N.. And Long. 76° 18' E., On The S. Side Of The Principal Channel, Between The Open Ocean And The Back Water ...

Cock
Cock, Properly, The Name Of The Male Of The Common Domestic Fowl (see Fowl), But Very Generally Extended To The Males Of Other Kinds Of Gallinaceous Birds, And Not Unfre Qnently Employed As A Distinctive Appellation Of The Males Even Of Some Kinds Of Small Birds. The Ancients Regarded The ...

Cockade
Cockade (fr. Cocarde, Or Eoquarde). According To Wedgwood, The Word Signified Originally A Cocked-hat, Or A Hat With The Broad Flap Looped Up On One Side, And Was Then Applied To The Knot Of Ribbon With Which The Loop Was Ornamented. Another View Is, That It Is Derived From Coquart, ...

Cockroach
Cockroach, Hatta, A Genus Of Orthopterous (q.v.) Insects, Having An Oval Or Orbicular Flattened Body, The Head, Hidden Beneath The Large Plate Of The Prothorax, Long Thread-like Antennm, And Wings Folded Only Longitudinally. The Elytra Are Parch Ment-like, And The Wings Are Sometimes Very Imperfectly Developed, Particularly In The Females, ...

Cocoon
Cocoon, A Silken Envelope Which The Larva; Of Many Insects Spin For Themselves Immediately Before Their Transformation Into The Pupa State, And Which Serves For The Protection Of The Inactive And Helpless Pupa. The Name Is Sometimes Extended To Coverings Formed Of Other Materials, By Agglutination Or Otherwise. Many Insects ...

Cocytus
Cocy'tus, The Name Given By The Ancients To A River Of Epirus. Fed By The Snows Of Pindus, And Which, After A Long Underground Course, Was Regarded As Falling Into The Acherusian Lake.—cocytus Was Also The Name Of A River Of The Infernal Regions, A Branch Of The Styx. Cod, ...

Codlin Moth
Codlin Moth, Pyralis Pomona, A Small Moth Which Is Very Injurious In Apple Orchards In Some Pars Of Britain, Laying Its Eggs In The Eyes Of The Newly-formed Fruit, Within Which The Larva Feeds, So That The Growth Of The Fruit Is Arrested, And It Falls Prematurely Off. The Moth ...

Coffee
Coffee. This Well-known Beverage Is An Infusion Of The Roasted Albumen Of The Seeds Of The C. Tree (coffaa Arabica), A Native Of Abyssinia And Arabia, But Now Natura Lized In Many Of The Tropical Countries Colonized By Europeans. There Are A Number Of Species Of Coffwa, But This One ...

Coffer
Coffer, A Casket For Keeping Jewels Or Other Valuables. Caskets And Chests Were Sometimes Made Of Iron, But More Frequently Of Wood. ' A Water-tight Structure Used In Engineering For Excluding The Water. From The Foundations Of Bridges, Quay-walls, Etc., So As To Allow Of Their Being Built Dry.. Coffer-dams ...

Coffin
Coffin (lat. Cophinus, Gr. 1zofinos, In Both Languages Signifying A Basket, Coffer, Or Chest, But Never A Coffin). In The Ordinary English Sense Of The Word, A C. Is A Chest Or Box In Which Dead Bodies Are Buried Or Deposited In But The Term Is Also Applied To A ...

Cohesion
Cohesion Is The Name To Given That Species Of Attraction (q.v.) By Which The Particles Of Matter Are Held Together So As To Form Bodies (see Adhesion), And Its Measure Is The Resistance Which Bodies Offer To Any Mechanical Force Tending To Separate Their Parts. In Gaseous Bodies, C. Is ...

Cohesion Figures
Cohesion-figures, A Remarkable Class Of Figures Produced In Liquids By The Action Of Their Natural Cohesive Attraction For The Surfaces Of Other Liquids Or Solids On Which They Are Deposited, Or By Induced Cohesive Attraction Effected By The Means Of Electricity. They May Be Described Under Four Heads: (1) The ...

Coimbatore
Coimbatore, A District In The Province Of Madras, In Lat. 10° 14' To 12° 19' N., And Long. 76° 36' To 78°. 16' E., Containing 7,432 Sq.m. And (1871) 1,763,274 Inhabitants. Lying To The N.e. Of The State Of Cochin, It Is Almost Entirely Beyond The Western Ghauts. Besides The ...

Coining
Coining In Law. The Privilege Of C. Money Being An Exclusive Prerogative Of The Crown, The Crime Of Counterfeiting The King's Money, As It Was Called, Was Declared To Be Treason, Both By The Common Law Of England And By Many Statutes. In Scotland, There Continued To Be Some Differences ...

Coke
Coke, Sir Edward, A Distinguished Engligh Lawyer And Judge, Was B. At Mileham, In Norfolk, On The 1st Of Feb., 1551-52. Educated At The Free Grammar-school Of Nor Wich, And At Trinity College, Cambridge, He Passed Thence To Clifford's Inn, And Subse Quently To The Inner Temple, To Study Law, ...

Colbert Jean Baptiste
Colbert. Jean Baptiste, Minister Of Finance To Louis Xiv., Was B. At Rheims In 1619, And Served His Apprenticeship In A Woolen-draper's Shop. He Afterwards Went To Paris, Where His Talents Introduced Him To Mazarin, Who Soon Employed Him In Most Important Affairs Of State. On His Death-bed, Mazarin Warmly ...

Colchicum
Colchicum, A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Inelanthacem. The Species, Which Are Few In Number, Arc Stemless, With Flowers Half Subterranean Like The Crocus, The Limb Of The Perianth And Part Of Tube Only Rising Above-ground. The Flowers Much Resemble Crocus-flowers, But Are Readily Distinguished By Having Six ...

Cold
Cold Is The Term By Which We Signify A Relative Want Of Sensible Heat. There Are, Therefore, No Determinate Boundaries Between Cold And Heat, And It Is A Mere Arbitrary Distinction To Call The Degrees Of The Thermometer Below The Freezing-point, Degrees Of Cold. When The Atmosphere, Or Any Substance ...

Colic
Colic (from Co/on—see Aldientary Canal), A Name Employed By The Later Greek And The Roman Physicians To Denote Diseases Attended With Severe Pain And Flatulent Distension Of The Abdomen, Without Diarrhea Or Looseness Of The Bowels. The Disease (commonly Called Gripes Or Belly-ache) Is Now Generally Believed To Be Spasmodic ...

Collections At Churches
Collections At Churches. The Collections Which Are Still Made At All Churches In Scotland—either At The Church-doors Before The Service, Or In The Church After It— Were, Till A Comparatively Recent Period, The Principal Fund For The Support Of The Poor. By A Proclamation Of The Privy Council Of 29th ...

College
College (lat. Collegium, A Collection Or Assemblage). In Its Roman Signification, A C. Signified Any Association Of Persons For A Specific Purpose. In Many Respects It Was Synonymous With Corpus, A Body Or Collection Of Members, A Corporation—with Univer Sitas, A Whole As Contrasted With Its Parts—and With Societas, A ...

Collision Of Vessels
Collision Of Vessels (ante). If A Collision Happens Without Fault, And No Blame Can Be Charged To Those In Charge Of Either Vessel, Each Party Must Bear Its Own Loss. In Case Both Parties Are At Fault, Neither Can Have Relief At Common Law; But Maritime Courts Aggregate The Damage ...

Collodion
Collodion (gr. Kollao, To Stick). This Substance, On Its First Introduction, Employed In Surgery As A Preservative Of Wounds, Etc., From Contact Of Air, By Means Of The Tena Cious And Transparent Film Which It Leaves On Evaporation—and Now, Also, In A Slightly Modified Form, Remarkable As The Basis Of ...

Collodionized Paper Process
Collo'dionized Paper Process. Paper Being Substituted For Glass In This Pro Cess, As A Basis Upon Which To Support The Film, A Great Increase In Portability Is Arrived At, As The Sensitive Sheets May Be Carried In A Portfolio, And Employed In The Same Man• Ner As Dry Collodion Plates. ...

Colocynth
Col'ocynth (gr. Kololoynthis), A Well-known Medicine, Much Used As A Purgative, Is The Dried And Powdered Pulp Of The Colocynth Gourd, Coloquintida, Bitter Apple, Or Bitter Cucumber, A Globose Fruit About The Size Of An Orange, Of A Uniform Yellow Color, With A Smooth, Thin, Solid Rind. The Plant Which ...

Cologne
Cologne' The Coionia Agrippina Of The Romans), A City And Free Port On The Left Hank Of The Rhine, In Lat. 50° 56' Ii., Long. 6° 53' East. Formerly An Independent City Of The German Empire, It Is Now The Capital Of Rhenish Prussia. C. Is A Fortress Of The ...

Colombo
Colombo, The Capital Of Ceylon, An Episcopal City And Seat Of Government, Is Sit Uated On The Western Side Of The Island, In 6° 59' N. Lat., And 80° 4' E. Long., Near A Rocky Headland, The Joris Extrennan Of Ptolemy, By Which The Mariners Of Antiquity Steered For The ...

Colonel
Colonel (from The Italian Eolonello, The Leader Of A Column) Is The Highest Officer Of A Regiment; Any Grade Above This Converts Him Into A General-officer Belonging To The Army Collectively, Rather Than To Any One Regiment. Before The Reign Of Elizabeth The Chief Officer Of An English Regiment Was ...

Colony
Colony (lat. Colonia, From Colonus, A Husbandman; The First Inhabitants Of A C. Being Generally People Of Agricultural Pursuits). The Term Is Loosely Used To Embrace Various Classes Of Distant Territories Subordinate To Or Dependent On A Parent State. A C., How Ever, Properly Means A Body Of People Formed ...

Colorado
Colorado (ante), Named From The Colorado River, Meaning" Red Water." It Is The The 38th And Youngest Of The States Of The American Union, Admitted Aug. 1, 1876. It Is Bounded By Arbitrary Lines Of Lat. And Long., 37° To 40° N. And 102° To 109° W., Being About 280 ...

Colos Sus
Colos Sus, A Greek Word Of Unknown Origin, Used To Denote A Statue Very Greatly Beyond The Size Of Life. In English, The Adjective Colossal Is Used In A Somewhat Wider Sense, To Denote All Statues Which Exceed The Size Of Life, In However Small A Degree. Most Statutes Are ...

Columbia
Columbia, Tharristr, Since 1871 A Province Of The Dominion Of Canada, Is Divided Into Two Parts—the Mainland, Commonly Called British C.; And Vancouver's Island (q.v.). These Were Formerly Independent Colonies, But Were United In 1866. The Total Area Of The Province Is Estimated At 220,000 Sq.m. As Vancouver's Island Is ...

Columbia College
Columbia College. In Dec., 1746, An Act Of The Colonial Assembly Was Passed To Raise Money By Public Lottery For The Encouragement Of Learning And Towards The Founding Of A College In The City Of New York. The Amount Thus Raised Was Vested In Ten Trustees, Seven Of Whom Were ...

Columbide
Colum'bid.e, A Family Of Birds, Often Comprehended Under The General English Names Dare And Pigeon, And Forming The Genus Coluntba (lat. Pigeon) Of Linnaeus. They Are Gen Erally Ranked Among Gallinaceons Birds, But Exhibit Points Of Resemblance To The Order Insessores, And Have Among Some Naturalists Been Constituted Into A ...

Column
Column (lat. Cohimna), A Pillar Or Post, Usually Cylindrical In Form, Employed For The Purpose Of Supporting A Roof, Entablature, Or Other Superstructure. As The Earliest Habitations• In Almost All Countries Were Formed Of Wood, It Is Unquestionable That The Earliest Columns Consisted Of The Trunks Of Trees. It Is ...

Coma
Coma, A Greek Word Used In Medicine, To Signify A State Of More Or Less Profound Insensibility Allied To Sleep, But Differing From Natural Sleep In Its Characters, As Well As In The Circumstances Under Which It Occurs. In C., The Patient Lies On His Back, And Is Either Simply ...

Comacchio
Comacchio, A Fortified T. Of Central Italy, In The Province Of Ferrara, And 3 M. From The Adriatic. The Lagoon, Or Marsh, In The Midst Of Which It Is Situated, Is About 140 M. In Circumference, And Is Shut Out From The Adriatic By A Narrow Belt Of Mud. Its ...

Comayagua
Comaya'gua (formerly Valladolid La Nueva), Chief City Of Honduras, Central America, 100 In. E. Of Guatemala. In A Fine But Unhealthy Valley, 1800 Ft. Above The Sea, On The Right Hank Of The Humuva, Which Flows Into The Pacific. The City Was Founded In 1540, Is The See Of A ...

Combination
Combination Means The Act Of Uniting Or Combining Certain Active Elements; And It Has Come Lately, In The Legal And Political Phraseology Of England, To Mean The Unit Ing Together Of Persons Having A Common Interest, With A View To Promoting That Inter Est. Thus, It May Refer To Employers ...

Combustion
Combustion Is The Term Applied To The Process Of Burning, Which Usually Consists In The Oxygen Of The Air Uniting With The Constituents Of The Combustible Substance. Thus, The C. Of Coal Is Due To The Oxygen Of The Air Passing Into A State Of Chemical Union With The Carbon ...

Come Nius
Come Nius, Join Antos, The Most Distinguished Educational Reformer Of The Early Part Of The 17th C., Was B. On The 28th Of Mar., 1592, According To Some, At Conlin, Near Briinn; According To Others, At Niwnitz, In Moravia. His Parents Belonged To The Community Of The Moravian Brethren. C. ...

Comet
Comet. The Word C. Is Derived From The Gr. Kome, Hair, A Title Which Had Its Origin In The Hairy Appearance Often Exhibited By The Haze Or Luminous Vapor, The Presence Of Which Is At First Sight The Most Striking Characteristic Of The Celestial Bodies Called By This Name. The ...

Comitia
Comi'tia (ante). It Was A Fundamental Principle Of The Roman Constitution That The Supreme Power Was Inherent In The Citizens, Though It Might Be Delegated By Them To Hereditary Or To Elected Magistrates. All Important Matters, However, Had To Be Brought Before The Sovereign People, Who Could Either Ratify Or ...

Comma
Comma, In The Mathematical Study Of Sound, Is Applied To Two Small Intervals, Which, By Comparison And Calculation, Arise As The Difference Between The Proportions Of Cer Tain Other Intervals Of The Diatonic Scale. The Larger, But Seldomer Occurring C. Is Called The C. Ditonicum, Or The Pythagorean C., Being ...

Commander
Commander (ante), In The U. S. Navy, An Officer Next In Position Below Cap., Equivalent To Lieut.col. In The Army. Is The Highest Staff Appointment In The British Army. It Is Held By The Gen. Commanding All The Forces In India, And Would Probably Be Given To The Leader Of ...

Commerce
Commerce. The Term C. In Its General Acceptation Means International Traffic In Goods, Or What Constitutes The Foreign Trade Of All Countries As Distinguished From Domestic Trade. The First Foreign Merchants Of Whom We Lead, Carrying Goods And Bags Of Silver From One Region To Another, Were The Arabs, The ...

Commissariat
Commissariat Is A Name For The Organized System Whereby Armies Are Provided With Food, And Daily Necessaries Other Than Those Connected With Actual Warfare. Among The Ancients The Romans Attended Best To The C. ; The Pastors Were The Commissaries. In Feudal Times, The Soldiers Were Mainly Dependent For Food ...

Committee
Committee (fr. Cornite), A Portion, Generally Consisting Of Not Less Than Three Mem Bers, Selected From A More Numerous Body, To Whom Some Special Act To Be Performed. Or Investigation To Be Made, Is Committed. But Though A C. Usually Consists Of Several Members Of The Body By Which It ...

Commodus
Commodus, Lucius Aurelius, A Roman Emperor, B. 161 A.d., Was The Son Of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Great Pains Were Taken With His Education. But The Solicitude Of His Father Was All To No Purpose. C. Only Waited For An Opportunity To Exhibit As Start Ling And Detestable A Mixture Of ...

Common
Common, In Law. This Is One Of The Numerous Instances In Which A Different Mean Ing Is Attached To The Same Term In The Legal Systems Of England And Scotland. In England, A C., As Defined By Blackstone, Is "a Profit Which A Man Bath In The Land Of Another, ...

Common Lan
Common Lan, In England. These Words, In Their Proper Sense, Signify The Ancient Consuetudinary Law Of England. The C. L. Is Therefore Distinguished From The Statute Law And From Equity. It Is Wholly Overruled By The Statute Law. On The 2(1 Nov., 1875, The C. L. Courts Were Merged Iu ...

Common Law
Common Law, Corms Of. These Are Generally Divided Into Superior And Inferior. The Superior Sit At 'westminster, And Hence Are Often Called The Courts At 'westminster. They Had The Names Of The Court Of Queen's Bench, The Court Of Common Pleas Or Of Common Bench, And The Court Of Exchequer. ...

Common Prayer Book
Common Prayer-book. This Contains The Forms Of Public Worship And Adminis Tration Of The Sacraments And Other Rites And Ceremonies According To The Use Of The United Church Of England And Ireland. It Is, For The Most Part, A Translation Of Such Portions Of The Services Of The Ancient Catholic ...

Common Schools
Common Schools. The Puritan Settlers Of New England Built The School-house By The Side Of The Church Even Before They Had Provided Permanent Homes For Them Selves. Their First Schools (in Which Latin Was Taught) Were, However, Free In Part Only, And To Those Who Had Contributed To Found Them. ...

Common Sense
Common Sense, True Philosophy Of. There Are Certain Beliefs That Have Been Current Among Men In All Ages, Which, When Canvassed By One Set Of Philosophers, Have Been Declared Tobe Groundless Illusions. Of These, The Most Remarkable Instance Is The Belief In An External, Material World, Independent Of Any Mind ...

Commune De Paris
Commune De Paris. The Organized Scfalists And Workingmen Who Revolted Against The French Government March 18. 1871,71 Few Days After The Evacuation Of Paris By The Germans, Subsequent To The Long Siege And Capture. The National Guard Of Paris Were Permitted To Retain Their Arms, And A Large Proportion Of ...

Communion In Both Kinds
Communion In Both Kinds. It Is Universally Acknowledged That In The Primitive Church, At The Celebration Of The Lord's Supper, Both The Bread And The Cup Were Distributed To All Who Communed. Sects Which, Like The Manichteans, Discarded The Wine Were Condemned As Irregular. As, However, There Was Frequent Occasion ...

Communism
Communism, The Name Given To One Class Of The Arrangements By Which Certain Speculators Have Proposed To Dispense With Those Laws Of Social And Political Economy Which Are Supposed To Keep Society Together, Through The Influence Of The Domestic Affections And The Spirit Of Competition, And To Substitute In Their ...

Communism
Communism (anm. So Far As America Is Concerned The Theory And Practice Of C. Have Made Little Progress. Socialism Has Been Tried, And With Some Degree Of Suc Cess; But Community Of Property And Of Interest Has Been Emphatically Rejected. In A Land Where All Men Are Free, Where All ...

Comparative Anatomy
Comparative Anatomy, Is The Term Employed To Express That Branch Of Anatomy In Which The Construction, Form, And Structure Of Two Or More Animals Are Compared With Each Other, So As To Bring Out Their Features Of Similarity Or Dissimilarity. It Is Sometimes Used, In Contrast With The Term Human ...

Comparison
Comparison, In Grammar, And As Applied To Adjectives (q.v.), Is That Which Marks The Degree In Which The Quality Is Attributed To The Object, As Compared With Other Objects. There Arc Three Degrees Of Comparison. The Positive Indicates The Quality Generally, Without Comparison; The Comparative, A Higher Degree Of The ...

Compasses
Compasses, Instruments For Transferring And Marking Off Distances, Or For Drawing Circles, Ellipses, Etc. The Common G. Or Dividers Are Simply Two Rods Or " Legs" Joined Together At One End By A Pivot-joint, And Pointed At The Other; When Used For Drawing Circles, The Lower Part Of One Of ...

Competition
Competition (lat. A Seeking Together) Has Been Well Defined By Dr. Johnson As "the Act Of Endeavoring To Gain What Another Endeavors To Gain At The Same Time." Its Most Apt Exemplification Is A Race, Where All Are Going To The Same Point, And All Strive To Be First There, ...

Complement
Complement, In Music, The Quantity Required To Be Added To Any Interval To Plete The Octave; For Example, A Fourth Is The C. Of A Fifth, A Third Is That Of A Sixth, Etc. Complexion, The Color Of The Skin, Existing In The Epidermis And Dependent Upon Certain Pigment Cells. ...

Complutensian Polyglot
Compluten'sian Pol'yglot, The Edition Of The Scriptures Issued Under The Patronage Of Cardinal Ximenes At A Very Great Cost To Himself. It Was In Six Volumes, Printed At Aicala In Spain, Between 1502 And 1517. The First Four Volumes Contain The Old Testament, With The Hebrew, Latin, And Greek In ...

Composite
Composite (called By Lindley Asterackx, And By Some Botanists Synantiier/e), A Natural Order Of Exogenous Plants, Distinguished By Compound Or Composite Flowers, I.e., Heads Of Flowers Which Are Composed Of A Greater Or Smaller Number Of Florets (generally Of Small Size) Congregated Upon A Common Receptacle, And Surrounded By Bracts ...

Composition
Composition Ais-n Resolution Of Forces And Motions. 1. The Fundamental Problem In Statics Is To Find The Magnitude And Direction Of The Resultant Of Two Forces; In Other Words, To Compound Them Into A Single Force, Which Shall Be In Every Respect Their Equivalent. Intensity And Direction Only Elements Necessary ...

Composts
Composts Are A Kind Of Manure (q.v.), Consisting Of Mixtures Of Substances Adapted To The Fertilization Of The Soil, Which Being Allowed To Ferment, And Undergo Chemical Changes For A Considerable Time In Heaps, Become More Valuable Than They Were At First, Or Ever Could Have Been If Applied Separately. ...

Compressed Air Engine
Compressed-air Engine. One Mode. Of Employing Air As A Motive-power Is Described In Caloric Engine (q.v.). Another Obvious Way Is To Compress It, And Then Apply It In The Manner Of High-pressure Steam. Although Compressed Air Has Been Used For Working Small Engines In Confined Situations, Such As Tunnels (q.v.), ...

Compressibility
Compressibility Is That Property Of Bodies By Which They Admit Of Being Forced Or Pressed Into Less Space Than They Formerly Occupied. The Particles Composing Bodies Are In All Cases At Greater Or Less Distances From One Another; And Whatever Brings The 1)articles Closer Together, Diminishes The Volume Or Bulk ...

Concordat
Concordat (let. Concordatum, " A Thing Agreed On"), Although Sometimes Used Of Purely Secular Treaties, Is Now Almost Exclusively Employed To Designate A Compact On Ecclesiastical Affairs Between The Pope, As Head Of The Roman Catholic Church, And The Temporal Ruler Of A Particular Kingdom Or State. Concordats Commonly Relate ...

Concrete
Concrete, A Mixture Of Hydraulic Or Other Mortar With Gravel Or Shingle, Which, On Hardening, Forms An Artificial Conglomerate. The Best C. Is Made By Well Mixing Hydraulic Mortar (see Cement) With Sand And Sufficient Water For Complete Hydration, And Then Adding The Shingle Or Screened Ballast, And Mixing Them ...

Concretion
Concretion, In Medicine, A Formation Of Solid Unorganized Masses Within The Body, Either By Chemical Precipitation From The Fluids, Or By The Accidental Aggregation Of Solids Introduced Into The System From Without. In The Former Case, A C. Is Termed A Calculus (q.v.); In The Latter, The C. May Be ...

Concurrent Jurisdiction
Concurrent Jurisdiction. Jurisdiction Is Said To Be Concurrent, Or Cumula Tive, When It May Be Exercised In The Same Cause By Any One Of Two Or More Courts. To Prevent The Collision Which Might Arise From Each Of The Courts Claiming To Exercise The Right, It Has Been Established As ...

Concussion
Concussion, In Medicine, A Sudden Impression Or Shock Communicated To The Brain Or To The Whole Nervous System, As The Result Of A Severe Injury, Or Collision Of The Body With Some External Object. As In A Fall, Or In The Crash Of A Railway Accident. It Is Usual To ...

Conde
Conde, Louis De Bourbon, Prince De, Was B. 7th May, 1530, And First Distinguished Himself Under Marshal Brissac. In The Dissensions Between The Houses Of Guise And Bourbon. C. Was The Soul Of His Party, Which Was For The Most Part Calvinistic Or Huguenot. It Was He Who Directed The ...

Conde_2
Conde, Loris Ii. Of Bourbon, Prince Of, Commonly Termed " The Great Conde," Was The Great-grandson Of The Preceding, And Was B. Sept. 8, 1621. In -youth (1640-42), He Took Part In The Sieges Of Arras And Perpignan, And Commanded The Army Against The Spaniards In The Netherlands, Where Be ...

Condenser
Condenser, The Apparatus Used In Conjunction With An Electrometer To Increase Its Sensibility, And Render It Available For Indicating The Presence Of Very Feeble Electricity. The Condensing Apparatus Consists Of Two Brass Plates, Which Are Placed Horizontally, The Lower One Being Connected With A Metal Rod To Which Gold Leaves ...

Condition
Condition, In Law. This Word Is Of Peculiar Importance In The Real Property Law Of England, As Forming The Foundation Upon Which The Right Of Alienation Of Laud, As Well As The System Of Entails And That Of Mortgages Was Raised. Originally, A Gift Of An Estate To A Tenant ...

Condor
Condor, Sarcoramplius Grypicus, The Great Vulture Of The Andes, And The Largest Of Known Flying Birds. Its Dimensions, However, Were For A Long Time Greatly Exaggerated. It Is Not Always Much Larger Than The Bimmerycyer Of The Alps. Being Sometimes Scarcely More Than 4 Ft. Long, And Its Expanse Of ...