COLOS SUS, a Greek word of unknown origin, used to denote a statue very greatly beyond the size of life. In English, the adjective colossal is used in a somewhat wider sense, to denote all statues which exceed the size of life, in however small a degree. Most statutes are thus.colcssal, though of colossi, very few have been erected in modern times. The "Bavaria" (q.v.) at Munich is perhaps the only very celebrated example. The colossal was the peculiar characteristic of Egyptian art, and innumerable colossi were raised in Egypt, mostly of the hardest stone, many of them 50 to 60 ft. in height. The most celebrated is the vocal statue of Memnon (q. v.) in the plain of Thebes, described by Strabo and Pausanias, and supposed to be identical with the more northerly of the two existing colossi on the w. bank of the Nile. But it was in the artistic world of Greece that the most famous colossi appeared; e.g., the bronze statue of Pallas Athene, on the acropolis of Athens, the plume of whose hemlet and the point of whose spear were landmarks to sailors between Sunium and Athens; another statue of the some goddess, of gold and ivory—the so-called Palladium in the parthenon at Athens; and the Olympian Jupiter, °Lille same material, the masterpiece of Phidias, who was also the author of the two statues just mentioned. Amongst the seven wonders of the old world, was reckoned the gigantic C. of Rhodes, representing Phcebus, the national deity of the Ithodians. It is said to have been commenced by Chares, of Lindus, famous pupil of Lysippus, and terminated by Ladies. They formed it of metal, which was east in separate pieces, a process which lasted for 12 years, and was completed 2S0 B.C. Its height is doubtful—some making it 90 ft.; others 90 and even 103 cubits. It
cost 300 talents. Sixty years after its erection, it was thrown down by an earthquake. The Romans imitated the Greeks in the erection of these gigantic structures. The statue of Jupiter upon the capitol, made from the armor of the Samnites, was so large that it could be seen from the Alban hills. Then there was the bronze statue of Apollo, of which what is supposed to be the head is now in the capitol; a bronze statue of Augustus, in the forum; a C. of Nero, executed in marble, of the enormous height of 110 or 120 ft., from which the contiguous amphitheater is believed to have derived the name of " colosseum;" an equestrian statue of Domitian, in the center of the forum; and many others.
is the term applied to the first milk yielded after delivery. In differs very materially from ordinary milk, and generally appears as a turbid, yellowish, viscid fluid, similar to soap and water. When examined under the microscope, it is found to contain, in addition to the ordinary milk corpuscles (see MILK), peculiar conglomera tions of very minute fat granules, which are hence known as C. corpuscles. The chief chemical difference between C. and milk is. that the former contains nearly three times more salts than the latter. It is probably this excess of salts that usually causes it to exert it purgative effect upon the new-born infant, and thus to remove the meconium (q.v.) which had accumulated in the fetal intestine.