DETROIT (ante), the most populous city of Michigan, and the capital of Wayne co., on the iv. bank of the Detroit river, about 18 m. from lake Erie and 7 m. from lake St. Clair. The site is sufficiently elevated above the river to afford excellent facilities for drainage, which have been thoroughly improved. The river, which is the dividing line at this point between the United States and Canada, is half a mile wide and over 30 ft. deep, forming the best harbor on the lakes. The city extends 6 or 7 m. along the bank of the river and from 2 to 3 m. hack from it. The river front is lined with warehouses, mills, foundries, grain elevators, railway stations, shipyards, dry docks, etc., the signs of an enterprising and thriving community. Fort Wayne, a mile below, commands the channel. The site of the city was visited by the French early in the 17th c., but no permanent settlement was made by them until 1701. Sixty-two years later, in 1763, at the close of the war between England and France, it fell into the possession of the English. Immediately after this, Pontiac, the great Ottawa chief, made a desperate but unsuccessful effort to expel the whites from all that region. In 1778, Detroit contained only 300 inhabitants, living for the most part in log huts. A Roman Catholic church had survived from the days of the French possession. The British, in 1778, erected a fort, which, after the Americans gained possession, became Fort Shelby. At the peace of 1783, Detroit became a part of the United States, but the Americans did not take pos session until l3 years later. The place was wholly destroyed by fire in 1805, and two years afterwards the present city waslaid out. In the war of 1312 it was surrendered Hull to the British, but recovered by the Americans after the battle of lake Erie in 1813. It was incorporated as a village in 1815, as a city in 1824. It was the seat of government of the territory of Michigan from 1805 to 1837, and of the Mate of Michigan from the latter date till 1847. The plan of the city is not altogether harmo nious, but the streets are broad and well paved and lighted, many of them lined with beautiful shade trees. The avenues are from 100 to 120 ft. wide. Many of the busi ness structures are large, solid, and imposing, and there arc many elegant and costly private residences. The city has had a very rapid growth, the population increasing from 770 in 1810 to 79,750 at the last census, when there were 15,639 families and 14,688 dwellings. Of the 79,570 inhabitants. 35,381 were of foreign birth, and 2,233 colored. The larger portion of the foreigners were Germans. The principal park of Detroit is the "Grand Circus," and it is the center from which the principal avenues radiate. The plan of the city leaves a number of small triangular parks, where the streets inter sect each other at The "Grand Circus" is semicircular and divided by Woodward avenue into two parts, each adorned with a fountain. The " Campus Martins" is a plot of ground 600 ft. long and 250 wide, crossed by two avenues. Facing it on one side is the city hall, a fine structure of sandstone, 200 ft. in length by 90 ft. in width, which cost $600,000. In front of the city hall is a monument to the soldiers of Michigan who fell in the war of the rebellion; and facing the Campus Martins on the n. is an opera house, a large and fine building. The United States custom-house and post office, a large building of stone, is on Griswold street. The largest church edifice is the Roman Catholic cathedral, but there are several of other denominations which are fine specimens of architecture. The Roman Catholic convent of the Sacred Heart is a large
and handsome structure. The Michigan Central freight depot is 1250 ft. long and 102 ft. wide—a single room, covered by a self-supporting roof of iron; and near it stands a grain elevator with cupola, commanding a fine prospect. The house of correction is also a very handsome building, erected at a cost of $300,000, with a capacity for 450 inmates. There are two beautiful cemeteries, one on the w., the other on the e. side of the city; and besides these several smaller ones belonging to different religious sects. Nearly a dozen lines of street railroad intersect the different parts of the city, and ferry boats ply constantly between it and Windsor on the Canada side of the river. There are numerous lines of steamers with elegant and commodious boats running to different points on the lakes. Eight great lines of railroad center here, connecting Detroit with all parts of the United States and Canada. The foreign commerce of the city is almost exclusively with the adjoining British possessions. For the year ending June, 1873, the exports amounted to almost $3,000,000, the imports to about $2,000,000. In the second year there were entered and cleared 1949 American and 1522 foreign vessels. with a capacity of about 8,000 tons. The coasting trade in the same year, by steam and sailing vessels, amounted to over 773,000 tons. The number of sailing vessels belong ing to the port was 188, of steamers 120. The exports for the most part consist of corn, oats, wheat, lumber, cotton, hogs, bacon, and lard. Large quantities of domestic produce, from Michigan and states farther west, pass eastward through D., the chief articles being flour, wheat, corn, oats, barley, apples, butter, hides, hops, dressed hogs, pork, beef, wool, and sheep. The trade in lumber is very large, the receipts in 1872 being 76,947,000 ft., of which less than 5,000,000 ft. was from Canada. About 60,000 cattle. valued at about $2,500,000 were sold in D. in the same year. The manufactures have developed rapidly and are very extensive. There are numerous foundries and blast furnaces, copper-smelting works, locomotive and car works, safe factories, furniture establishments, iron-bridge works, brick-yards, flour-mills, tanneries, breweries, distil leries, and tobacco and cigar factories. The capital invested in banks of discount was $2,250,000 and there were 4 savings banks with deposits of about $400,000. There are also fire, marine, and life insurance companies doing an extensive business. The cash value of property in 1872 was estimated at $78,718,913. The police and fire depart ments are well organized. The city is abundantly supplied with water from the Detroit river by works valued at $1,221,752. Hospitals and asylums abound. The public schools are well organized and efficiently managed. The Roman Catholics and some of the Protestant sects have schools of their own. The Detroit medical college was organ ized in 1868, the hommopathic college, 1871. The public library contains 25.000 volumes; that of the young men's society 12,000; that of the mechanics' society 4,000. There are in the city 8 daily papers (3 of them German), 3 triweekly, 14 weekly, 7 monthly. There are 61 churches, of which 9 arc Roman Catholic. the others being divided among the various denominations, of which the Baptists, Methodists, Presby terians, and Lutherans are most prominent.