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Publius Clodius Pulcher

wood, sign, name, museum, prime and clog

CLODIUS PULCHER, PUBLIUS, (real name, PU4LICS CLAUDIUS PuLcirEE), appears• in history, 70 B.C., serving under Eucullus in Asia, and in civil affairs in 69, when he impeached' Canine for extortion in Africa; but Catiline bribed the accuser and es.-...sped. Clodius appears to have been avaricious and unscrupulous. Near the close of the year 69, Clodius was said to have had an intrigue with Pompeia, wife of Julius Caesar, on the occasion of the celebration of the Bona‘Deit in Ctesar's house. Clodius was tried for violation of the sacred mysteries, but was acquitted, it was charged because he had bribed the judge. He was elected tribune in 59, and one of his first acts was to exile Cicero, who had refused to defend him in the trial for sacrilege, but the great orator was soon afterwards recalled in spite of Clodius's opposition. Ile went on from bad to worse, gathering around him the worst elements of the people, until he became a can didate for the prtetorship (53 "Lc.) iu opposition to Milo. Both candidates worked with the energy and recklessness supposed to be characteristic only of modern times. The contest was ended in an unexpected manner, Jan. 20, 52 n.c. Milo set out ou a journey to Lanuvium. On the way he met Clodius, ivho was on.his road to Rome. Both were accompanied by armed followers, but passed each other.without disturbance. However, some of the men in the rear guard of each party began to quarrel, a fight followed, and Clodius was killed.

CLOG AL'ItANAC, the name given in England to a primitive kind of calendar or almanac, called also a "rim stock" and "prime staff." In Scandinavia it was called a " Runic staff," from the Runic characters used in its numerical notation. It was gen erally of wood (whence its name of "clog," i.e., log or block), but was sometimes of brass, of bone, or of horn. When of wood, it was most commonly of box; but elm, fir, and oak, were also employed. " This almanac" says Dr. Plot, in his .2Vatural His tory of Stufforcisleire, written in 1686, when it was still in use among the common peo ple of that county—" is usually a square piece of wood, containing three months on each of the four edges. The number of days in them are expressed by notches; the

first day by a notch with a patulous stroke turned up from it, and every seventh by a large-sized notch. Over against many of the notches are placed on the left hand several marks or symbols, denoting the golden number or cycle of the moon. The festivals are marked by symbols of the several saints issuing from the notches. Some are perfect, containing the dominical letters as well as the prime and marks for the feast, engraven upon them, and such are our primestaves in the museum at Oxford; others imperfect, having only the prime and the immovable feasts on them, and such are all those I met with in Staffordshire; which yet are of two kinds also, some public, of a larger size, which hang commonly here at one end of the mantle-tree of their chimneys, for the use of the whole family; and others private, of a smaller size,•which they carry in their pockets." Examples of the C. A. may be seen in the British museum (one cut appa rently towards the end of the 17th c.); in the Ashmoican museum, and the Bodleian library, at Oxford; in St. John's college, Cambridge; and in the Cheetham library, at Manchester. The Flemish antiquary, Gruter, delineates one at Rome, which he believes to have been used by the Goths and Vandals; but there is no reason to suppose that the C. A. was known to nny European nation before its conversion to Christianity. It is described by the Swedish historian, Olaus Magnus, in the 16th c. ' • and by the Dan ish antiquary, Claus Wormius, in the 17th c. It has been found in France and else where. In Denmark it seems to have been generally flat, divided into six columns; but six-sided examples are not unfrequent. Some of the clog almanacs show a peculiar numerical notation. The first four digits are marked by dots; the fifth, by a sign like the Roman numeral V; the next four, by this sign and additional dots; and the tenth, by the sign -F.