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Chamber's Encyclopedia, Volume 4

Organs And Process Op
Digestion, Organs And Process Op. The Function Or Process Of Digestion Is One Of The Chief Of Those Organic Functions Which Are Directly Concerned In Maintaining The Life Of The Individual, Inasmuch As It Is That Through Which The Animal Is Enabled To Receive Aliment, And To Prepare Or Modify ...

Pall Delaroche
Delaroche, Pall, A Historical Painter, The Head Of The Modern "eclectic" School Of Art In France, Was B. In Paris In 1797, Became A Pupil Of Baron Gros, And Between The Years 1819 And 1823, Acquired Some Note By Painting Subjects Taken From Scripture, But First Excited Public Admiration In ...

Paul Courier
Courier, Paul Louis, A French Scholar And Political Writer, Was B. In Paris, Jan. 4, 1772. He Was Educated For The Army, But, Without Neglecting His Military Studies, He Showed A Special Predilection For Ancient Literature. In 1793, He Became Lieut. Of Artillery, Served In The Italian Campaign 1798-99, And ...

Period Of Dentition
Dentition, Period Of (lat. Dentitio, The Process Of Teething, From Dens, A Tooth). In Man And Most Mammals, There Are Two Distinct Sets Of Teeth; One Set Which Appears Shortly After Birth, And Which Are Termed The Milk Or Deciduous Teeth; And A Second Set, Which, After A Few Years, ...

Peter Cooper
Cooper, Peter, B. New York, 1791. When Young He Was In Humble Circum Stances, And Was Obliged To Pick Up An Education As Best He Could. .at The Age Of 17 He Was An Apprentice At Coach-making, Where His Conduct Was So Satisfactory That His Master Offered To Start Him ...

Peter Von Cornelius
Cornelius, Peter Von, One Of The First Masters Of The Modern German School Of Painting, Was B. At Dusseldorf, 23d Sept., 1787, And Studied Under Langer In The Acad Omy Of His Native Town. When Only 19 Years Of Age, Lie Painted Some Remarkable Fres Coes For The Cupola Of ...

Pierre Antoine Noel Daum
Daum, Pierre Antoine Noel Bnuno, Comte, Author, And Also One Of The Ablest Of The First Napoleon's Ministers, Was B. At Montpellier, 12th Jan., 1767, And In His Sixteenth Year Entered The Army. In 1791, He Was Appointed Intendant Of The Army Of Brittany; But Having The Misfortune To Speak ...

Pierre Corneille
Corneille, Pierre, The Creator Of French Tragedy, Was B. June G, 1606, At Rouen, Where His Father Was An Advocate. He Himself Studied For The Legal Profession. A Love Adventure, In Which He Became The Rival Of A Friend, First Prompted C. To Write Verses, And Helite, The Comedy Founded ...

Pierre Jean David
David, Pierre Jean, A French Sculptor, Commonly Called David D'angers, Was Born At Angers, 12th Mar., 1789; Went To Paris When Very Young; And Studied His Namesake., Jacques Louis David (q. V.). In 1811, His ' Death Ofepaminondas"' Obtained The First Prize For Sculpture Given By The Academy Of Arts. ...

Pietro Cortona
Cortona, Pietro Bernuttixi Da. 1596-1669; An Italian Architect And Painter Employed By Urban Viii. To Decorate A Chapel And To Execute The Frescoes On The Ceiling Of The Grand Salon Of The Barberini Palace, Which, With Others From His Hand, Are Among The Most Remarkable Specimens Of Decorative Art Of ...

Presentation At Court
Court, Presentation At. The Honor Of Being Presented At Court, Or Introduced To The Sovereign, Is Only To Be Obtained By Persons Of Respectable Position, And Is A Thing Sought After Not Only For The Éclat Of The Ceremonial, But As Giving A Certain Stamp Of Character; For, Having Been ...

Private Collegiate Instruction For
Collegiate Instruction For Women, Private (familiarly Known As The " Harvard Annex"). For Several Years Prior To 1879, The Question Of The Higher Education Of Women Had Fixed The Attention Of A Small Circle Of Friends Of Harvard College, Including A Portion Of Its Alumni And Instructors. The Opening Of ...

Publius Clodius Pulcher
Clodius Pulcher, Publius, (real Name, Pu4lics Claudius Pulciree), Appears• In History, 70 B.c., Serving Under Eucullus In Asia, And In Civil Affairs In 69, When He Impeached' Canine For Extortion In Africa; But Catiline Bribed The Accuser And Es.-...sped. Clodius Appears To Have Been Avaricious And Unscrupulous. Near The Close ...

Ralph Cudworth
Cud'worth, Ralph, D.d., An Illustrious English Divine, Was B. In 1617 At Aller, In Somersetshire, And Admitted Pensioner Of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, In 1630, Where He Took His Degree Of 3i.a., And Became An Eminent Tutor. About 1641, He Was Presented To The Rectory Of North Cadbury, In Somersetshire; And ...

Recovery Of Debts
Debts, Recovery Of. Courts Of Law, Besides Serving To Decide Eases In Which Questions Of Fact Or Law Are Really In Dispute, Serve An Important Purpose In. Facilitating The Recovery Of Debts, Against Which The Debtor Has No Defense Other Than That He Is Unable, Or Unwilling, To Pay. The ...

Richard Cobden
Cob'den, Richard, An Eminent English Politician, Who Was Very Aptly Designated "the Apostle Of Free-trade," Was B. At Dunford, Near Midhurst, Sussex, In 1804. His Father, Who Was The Owner Of Sonic Little Property, Which He Cultivated Himself, Died While The Subject Of This Article Was Yet Young, Leaving His ...

Robert Clive
Clive', Robert, Lord, Baron Of Plassey, One Of The Greatest Warrior-statesmen Of Whom England Can Boast, The Founder Of British Supremacy In India, Was B. At Styclie, In Shropshire, 1725. At School He Exhibited Little Aptitude For Learning, But Was Noted For His Mischievous Propensities And His Fearless Disposition. The ...

Robert Franvis Dayiens
Dayiens, Robert Fra.nv)is, Known For His Attempt To Assassinate Louis Xv., Was Born In 1714, At Tieulloy, A Village Near Arras, In France. He Was Evilly-disposed From His Youth, Being Known Even Then As Robert Is Diable. On Account Of A Robbery Which He Had Committed, Be Was Obliged To ...

Roger Crab
Crab, Roger, A Singular Secretary Of The English Revolution, Had Served For Seven Years In The Parliamentary Army, And Though He Had His " Skull Cloven" By A Royalist Trooper, Yet', For Some Breach Of Discipline, Cromwell Sentenced Him To Death, A Punish Ment Subsequently Commuted To Two Years' Imprisonment. ...

Saint Columba
Columba, Saint (called Also St. Colust•cm,r; And St. Cousi), One Of The Greatest Names In The Early Ecclesiastical History Of The British Isles, Was Born (it Is Believed, At Gartan, In The County Of Donegal) In The N. Of Ireland, On The 7th Of Dec., 521. His Father, Fedhlimidli, Of ...

Saint Cyril
Cy'ril, Saint, Bishop Of Jerusalem, An Eminent Church Father, Was B. At Jerusalem About 315 A.d., And Ordained A Deacon In 334, A Presbyter In 345, And On The Death Of Maximus In 351, Was Elected Bishop Of His Native City. His Metropolitan Was The Arian Bishop, Acacius Of Cmsarea, ...

Saint Denis
Denis, Saint, According To Tradition, The Apostle Of France And First. Bishop Of Paris, Suffered Martyrdom In The 3d Century. He Was Sent (as Is Said) From Rome About 250 A.d. To Preach The Gospel To The Gauls. After Various Detentions At Arles And Other Places, Lie Arrived In Paris, ...

Samuel Coleridge
Cole'ridge, Samuel Taylolt, Was B. At Ottery St. Mary, In The County Of Devon, Of Which Parish His Father Was Vicar, On The 21st Oct. 1772. He Was Educated At Christ's Hospital, And Numbered Charles Lamb Among His Sellool-fellows. Ills Acquirements In Greek Were Extensive; And Before His 13th Year ...

Sir Dalrymple
Dalrymple, Sir Davin, A Scottish Judge And Historical Antiquary, Commonly Known As Lord Hailes, Was B. At Edinburgh, 28th Oct., 1726. He Was The Grandson Of Sir David Dalrymple, Youngest And Reputedly The Ablest Son Of Viscount Stair. He, Was Educated First At Eton, Afterwards At Edinburgh, And Finally At ...

Solemn League And
Solemn League And Covenant.—this Was A Document Of Date Four To Five Years Later Than The National Covenant, Since The Signing Of Which, Charles I. Had Broken With The English Parliament, Set Up His Standard At Nottingham (aug., 1642), And From His Various Successes, It Was Thought He Might Finally ...

St Davids
Davids, St., An Ancient But Now Decayed Episcopal City, In The W. Of Pembrokeshire, The Westmost Town In Wales. It Is Situated On The Streamlet Allan, A Mile From Its Mouth, Near St, David's Head, On The 11. Side Of St. Bride's Bay. It Has Been The Scat Of A ...

Stamping
Stamping. The Most Ancient And Familiar Application Of Dies, Is In The Striking Of Coins And Medals; The Method Of Sinking The Dies Used For This Purpose Will Serve To Illustrate The General Method Of Die-sinking. Suppose The Coin To Be Of The Size Of A Shilling: A Cylindrical Piece ...

Stephen Decatur
Deca'tur, Stephen, Jr., 1779-1820; B, Md.; Son Of Capt. Stephen, And Like Him A Sea-farer, Though In The Regular Navy. He Served In The Smaller Offices From 1798 To 1803 Without Special Distinction. In Nov. Of The Latter Year He Had Command Of The Argus, In Commodore Preble's Squadron, And ...

Thohas De Quincey
De Quincey, Thohas, A Distinguished English Writer, Was B. In Manchester, Aug. 15, 1786. His Father Was A Wealthy :manchester Merchant, Who, Dying While His Children Were Yet Young, Left His Widow A .fortune Of £1600 A Year. De Q. Received His First Education At Home, And Was Afterwards Sent ...

Thomas Coke
Coke, Thomas, D.d., Ll.d., 1747-1814; B. Wales; First Bishop Of The Methodist Episcopal Church. He Was Educated At Oxford, And Entered The Ministry Of The Established Church About 1775; But Objections Were Made To His Sermons As Too Evangelical, And Lie Was Silenced. After An Intervie Vi,with Wesley He Joined ...

Thomas Cranner
Cranner, Thomas, One Of The Chief Reformers Of The English Church, And The First Protestant Archbishop Of Canterbury, Was B. At Aslacton, In The Co. Of Notting Ham, On The 2d Of July, 1489. He Was Descended From An Old Norman Family, Which Is Said To Have Come Into England ...

Thomas Cromwell
Cromwell, Thomas, An Eminent English Statesman And Ecclesiastical Reformer, Of The Reign Of Henry Viii., Was B. Near London In Very Humble Circumstances, His Father Being A Blacksmith, About 1490. After Receiving But A Very Meagre Education, He Went To The Continent, And Became Clerk In A Factory At Antwerp, ...

Tile Implements
Tile Implements Used In Croquet Are Mallets, Balls, Posts (or Sticks), And Hoops (which Are Called Indifferently Hoops, Wires, Or Arches). To These Are Sometimes Added N Cage, Or A Pair Of Tunnels; Or Hoops, Tunnels, And Cage May Be All Employed In The Same Game. The Progress Of Each ...

Tile Younger Cyrus
Cyrus, Tile Younger, The Second Of The Sons Of Darius Nothus, Or Ochus, Lived About 130 Years After The Groat Cyrus. He Conspired Against His Brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, Who Had Succeeded To The Throne (404 N.c.). The Plot, However, Being Dis Covered, Lie Was At First Sentenced To Death, But ...

Tinkers Dam
Dam, Tinker's, A Guard Of Dough Or Clay Placed By A Tinker Around A Cavity To Confine The Melted Metal Until It'" Sets." It Is Worthless After Use. Dam (fr. Barrage), A Harrier For Raising The Level Of Water In A Stream, For The Purpose Of Forming A Reservoir, Or ...

Tue Circus
Circus, Tue, Of Ancient Rome, Was A Large Oblong Building Adapted For Chariot Races And Horse-races, And Used Also For The Exhibition Of Athletic Exercises, Mock-con Tests, And Conflicts Of Wild Beasts. The Circensian Games Were Alleged By Tradition To Have Originated In The Time Of Romulus, When They Were ...

United States Congress
Congress, United States, The Only Legislative Body Of The Nation, Is Composed Of Two Houses: The Senate, Having Two Members From Each State; And The House Of Representatives, Having A Membership Based On Population (see Apportionment Bill, Though Every State Must Have At Least One Member. Senators Are Chosen By ...

Valerius
Valerius, B. In Humble Life Near Salons, In Dalmatia, 245 A.d., Inherited From His Mother, Dioclea, The Name Of Diodes, Which He Afterwards Enlarged Into D., And Attached As A Cognomen To Valerius, A Name Of The Most Patrician Associa Tions. He Adopted A Military Career, And Served With Distinction ...

Victor Cousin
Cousin, Victor, The Founder Of Systematic Eclecticism In Modern Philosophy, Was B. In Paris, Nov. 28, 1792. He Studied With Brilliant Success At The ..lyee Charlemagne. In 1812, He Was Appointed Greek Tutor In The Eeole .kormale, And, In 1814, Examiner In Philosopher. In The Following Year He Became Assistant-professor ...

Wilhelm Martin Leberecht De
De Wette, Wilhelm Martin Leberecht, One Of The Ablest Theologians Of Modern Germany, Was B. 14th Jan., 1780, At Ulla, Near Weimar, And Studied At The University Of Jena. In 1807, He Was Appointed Extraordinary Professor Of Philosophy At Heidel Berg; In 1809, Professor Of Theology; And In 1810, Was ...

William Coddington
Coddington, William, 1601-78; A Native Of Lincolnshire, Eng., And Founder Of The Colony Of Rhode Island. He Came Out In 1630 With A Commission As Magistrate, Binding At Salem, And Was For Some Time A Trader In Boston. He Undertook The Defense Of Ann Hutchinson, And Opposed Similar Persecution In ...

William Congreve
Con'greve, William, The Second Son Of Richard Congreve, Esq., Of Congreve And Stretton, Was Born About 1672, At Bardsey, Yorkshire. Educated At Kilkenny, And At Trinity College, Dublin, He In 1688 Returned To England, And Was Entered At The Middle Temple, But He Dose Not Seem To Have Taken Kindly ...

William Cullen
Cullen, William, A Well-known Physician Of The Last Century, And One Of The Most Celebrated Professors Of Medicine In The Universities Of Edinburgh And Glasgow,_was Born At I Randlton, In Lanarkshire, On The 15th Day Of April, 1710. His Father Was Factor The Duke Of Hatnilton, And Was Possessed Of ...

William Dabgan
Dab'gan, William, Was B. About The Beginning Of The Present Century In County Carlow, Ireland, Where His Father Was A Large Farmer. D. Received, When Young, A Good Education, And After Spending Some Time In The Office Of A Surveyor, Where He Acquired A High Reputation For Integrity And Assiduous ...

William Harris Crawford
Crawford, William Harris, 1772-1834; B. Ye., But Removed With His Family To Georgia When A Child. He Was Self-educated, And In 1798 Was Admitted To The Bar. In 1s02, He Was Chosen A Member Of The State Senate, In Which Body He Presented A Resolu Tion, Which Was Adopted By ...

William Ringdon Clifford
Clifford, William Ringdon, F.ils., Late Prof. Of Applied Mathematics And Mechan Ics At University College, London, And One Of The Foremost Mathematicians Of His Time, Was B. At Exeter, 4, 1845. He Was Educated At A School In His Native Town, At King's College, London. And At Trinity College, Cambridge. ...

Or Synod Council
Council, Or Syn'od. Is An Assembly Of Ecclesiastical Dignitaries Held For The Purpose Of Regulating The Doctrine Or Discipline Of The Church. As Early As The 2d C., Church Councils Were Convened In Which Only One Or Two Provinces Took Part, The Bishops And Presbyters Binding Themselves To Carry Out ...

Or Trefoil Clover
Clover, Or Tre'foil, Trifaium, A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Leguminsce, Sub-order Containing A Great Number Of Species, Natives Chiefly Of Temper Ate Climates, Abounding Most Of All In Europe. And Some Of Them Very Important In Agriculture As Affording Pasturage And Fodder For Cattle. The Name C. ...

The Areopagite Dionysius
Diony'sius, The Areopagite, Is Mentioned In The Acts Of The Apostles (chap. Xvii., Verse 34) As One Of The Few Persons In Athens Converted To Christianity By Paul. A History Has Been Invented For Him By The Church. It Is Said That He Was In Egypt When The Crucifixion Happened, ...

The Copernican System
Copernican System, The, Is That Which Represents The Sun To Be At Rest In The Center, And The Earth And Planets To Move Round It In Ellipses; In Other Words, It Is That Which We Now Know, On Unquestionable Evidence, To Be The True System Of The World. It Got ...

The Diamond Necklace
Diamond Necklace, The, A Wonderful Piece Of Jewelry, Made In Paris About The Year 1775, And Intended For Madame Du Barry, The Favorite Of Louis Xv. She, How Ever, Was Excluded From Court On The Death Of Louis (1774), And Before The Necklace Was Finished. After Being Made, This Beautiful ...

The Elder Dionysius
Dionysius, The Elder, Tyrant Of Syracuse, Was B, 431 Or 430 Ii.c. He Was Origi Nally A Clerk In A Pnblic Office, But Manifested At An Early Period A Passion For Political And Military Distinction. '4vlien The Agrigentines, After The Conquest Of Their City By The Carthaginians, Accused The Syracusan ...

The Philosophy Or The
Conditioned, The Philosophy. Or The. This Phrase Has Been Brought Into 'use By Sir W. Hamilton, To Express The Inability Of The Human Mind To Conceive Or Reason Respecting The Absolute And The Infinite. Our Thought, According To Him, Can Only Be Of The Relative And The Finite, Of Which ...

The Railway Clearing House
Clearing-house, The Railway, Is An Association Instituted To Enable Railway Companies In England And Scotland, To Carry On, Without Interruption, The Through Traffic In Passengers, Animals, Minerals, And Goods Passing Over Different Lines Of Rail Ways, And To Afford To The Traffic The Same Facilities As If The Different Lines ...