CYRUS, TILE YOUNGER, the second of the sons of Darius Nothus, or Ochus, lived about 130 years after the groat Cyrus. He conspired against his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, who had succeeded to the throne (404 n.c.). The plot, however, being dis covered, lie was at first sentenced to death, but afterwards pardoned, and even restored to his dignity as satrap of Asia Minor. Here lie employed himself in making arrange ments for war against his brother, although he concealed his purposes to the very last. In the spring of 401 B.C., he left Sardis at the head of 100,000 Asiatics, and 13,000 Greek mercenaries, under pretence of chastising the robbers of Pisidia. Artaxerxes being warned of C.'s perfidy, made preparations to oppose him, and tha two armies encountered each other in the plains of Cunaxa, 500 stadia from Babylon. C. was defeated and slain, although the Greeks fought with the greatest courage, and even routed that portion of Artaxerxes' troops immediately opposed to them. The fortunes of the Greeks, on their retreat through the highlands of Armenia, in severe winter weather, are recorded by Xenophon in his Anabasis (q.v.).
CYST (le.ystis, a bladder), a word sometimes used in the original sense as applied to hollow organs with thin walls, as the urinary bladder and gall bladder; btit commonly reserved for the designation of pathological structures or new formations within the body, having the bladder form. Cysts are commonly transparent, and often almost structureless in their tenuity; they are commonly, however, lined by an epithelium (q.v.), and have membranous walls, with faint indications of fibrous structure. They are either simple or compound, unilocular or multilocular; they are sometimes small, numerous, and separate; in other cases, they grow to an enormous size, and are very complex. Some cysts are distinctly parasitic, and of independent animal nature; such are hydatids (q.v.) and the cystic entozoa (q.v.) generally. Others are probably formed out of the structures in which they arise, their true pathology being, however, obscure. Such are the cysts of the kidney, and still more distinctly, the immense complex cystic structures which form in the ovary. See OVARIES.