FOURCROY, ANTOINE FRANcOIS, Comte de, 1755-1809; b. Paris; a French chemist. At the age of 15, lie became a student of medicine, lodging in a garret, supporting him self by giving lessons to other students, and making translations for a bookseller. In 1777, Essai say les Maladies des Artisans, his first publication, appeared. being the trans lation of a Latin work by Ramazzini, with notes and additions. In 1784, his reputation as a chemist gained for him, although Berthollet was his fellow candidate, the lecture ship of chemistry at the college of the jardin du roi, which had became vacant by the death of Macquer, one of the last of the phlogistic school. This post he held for 25 years; and so great were the crowds which his eloquence attracted that it was necessary to enlarge his lecture-theater twice. Fonrcroy was one of the first converts to the theories of Lavoisier, which he designated "La Chimie Francaise." Together with Berthollet, Fourcroy was associated with Lavoisier and Guyton de Morveau, m 1786 and 1787, in the preparation of a work entitled Methode de Nomenclature Chimigue, published in the latter year. In 1785, a memoir on the tendons gained for him admission into the French
:leadenly of sciences. He became, in 1792, one of the deputies of the national convention. and in 1793 a member of the assembly. He procured the release from imprisonment of Desault, surgeon of the Hotel-Dien, and prevented the execution of Darcet, though he found no opportunity of rescuing Lavoisier. On the 9th Thermidor he was appointed a member of the committee for the public safety, and in this capacity he instituted three schools of medicine, and essisted in the organization of other schools. After the revolution of Nov., 1799, he was made a councilor of state; and appointed director-general of instrne don, in which capacity he secured the formation of numerous professional schools and colleges. On the 16th Dec.., 1809, the very day on which by letters-patent he had been created a count df the French empire, with a yearly pension of 20,000 francs. he was signing some dispatches, when be suddenly exclaimed " Je suis mort," and with these words expired.