HIIN'GARY (Ger. Ungarn; Magyar, Orszdq (land of the Magyars), a portion of the Austro-Hungarian empire. According to the fundamental laws of the realm, time empe rors of Austria are kings of Hungary, which formerly comprehended Hungary proper, Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, the Illyrian sea coast, Transylvania, and the whole of the military frontier. After 1848 these pemlicles were dissociated administratively front Hungary proper and converted into crown lands. Since 1867 Hungary, Croatia, Slavonia, Transylvania, and the military frontiers, have constituted the kingdom of Hungary, one member of the bipartite empire. The two knots which tie Austria proper and Hungary together are the person of their common sovereign and the "delegations"—a parliament consisting of 120 members, of which 60 are supplied by either portion of the empire: This body legislates for war, finance, and foreign affairs; and the ministers of these three departments are responsible to it, or to a committee of its members. Hungary has an area of 124,560 English sq.m., and a population (1870) of 15.509,455; (1876) 15,784.500. The general features of the country are given under the article Austro-Hungary (q.v.). to •liieh many be added that the soil of the vast plains consist chiefly of humus and clay, and is of great fertility. Huge tracts of sand are to be found in several parts; there are also swamps all along the Theiss. Time level tracts in the eastern part of Hungary are subjected to periodical drought, and to frequently recurring blasts. The heat is some times so great, that it is impossible to walk with bare feet on the burning sand. Autumn and winter are of short duration. In spring, great part of the level land becomes an almost impassable ocean of mud. Hail-storms during summer, and the severity of cold during winter, cause much anxiety to farmers, and more especially to the numerous class of vine-growers. Ague is common in sonic regions, but the climate is healthful upon the whole.
Hungary is an agricultural country in the main, though the methods of cultivation are exceedingly defective. In many places the ground is not even manured. In Hun gary proper, exclusive of Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia, about one-twelfth of the whole soil is unproductive, one-third is arable land, one-fourth is wooded, one fourth in pasture, one-seventy-first devoted to the culture of the vine. Magnifi cent forests clothe all the hilly regions; yet in the low country wood is so scarce that dung has to be used for fuel. Grain is produced in abundance, and beyond what is needed for home consumption. The order of importance of the various kinds is oats (of which one-third is exported), barley, rye, maize, and wheat. Vast quantities of hemp and flax are raised. For more than 150 years tobacco has been raised in Hungary. Large quantities are still grown, the sale of it being, however, a government monopoly. Potatoes are little used for food save by Germans, but are available for making spirits. The culture of fruit is almost wholly left to the Germans, and is most productive in their hands; the fine climate brings, for example, no less than 50 kinds of peaches to perfection. In many parts of Hungary, figs, almonds, and even olives thrive. Wine is one of the most important sources of Hun garian comfort and wealth. France alone excels Hungary in the quantity of wine produced; the total production is estimated at .400,000,060 gallons, and could be much increased. But the system of culture, and the methods used in preparing the wine are
so primitive and imperfect, that not over 50,000,000 can be made fit for export. The wine of Hungary was used in England in the days of James I. The finest Hungarian wines are the yellowish brown Tokay (to the production of which upwards of 100 sq. m. of land are devoted), a dark red wine called 31enes, and the well-known Buster dessert-wine. Cattle-breeding is a great source of trade. Of large cattle Hungary pos sesses over three and a half millions; of sheep, twelve and a half; and swine innumerable. The number of geese and ducks may be inferred from an annual export of 150 tons of feathers. Horses are carefully reared in Hungary; there are nearly two millions of them in time land. No country of,Lurope has greater attractions than Hungary for the ,Torts man ; the chamois, bears, and wild boars are still found. Red deer abound, as do fowls and fish of all descriptions. In its minerals Hungary has vast sources of wealth. alone surpasses Hungary for its richness in the noble metals; very considerable quantities of gold and silver, generally mingled, being found. Copper and iron are largely produced. Antimony, cobalt, and arsenic arc wrought, as are salt, snda, nat ural saltpeter, and alum. Opals and amber occasionally appear; marble and alabaster, coal, pitch, and graphite are available in various districts. In regard to its industry, Hungary is yet far behind; a little of the commoner kinds of linen and woolen cloths, leather, sugar, glass, paper, and spirits are its chief manufactures. The trade in grain, flour, sheep, wool, and skins is brisk. Of the total population, upwards of 5,000,000 are engaged in agriculture and mining, 65,000 in industrial work, 134,000 in trade, and nearly 160,000 follow professional pursuits. Hungary has few good roads; the rivers, especially the Danube, are the great channels of communication. About 2,700 m. of railway are iu operation. Besides the capital, which has a population of over 200,000, there arc in Hungary four cities of 50,000 inhabitants and upwards, and three others above 40,000. In educational affairs Hungary has till of late been very backward. In 1871, out of 2,206,187 children of sufficient age, 1.253,500 were at school; 47 per cent of the men and 55 per cent of the women in Hungary can neither read nor write. Yet the educational apparatus of Hungary is on a liberal scale. The university of Buda-Pest has 52 ordinary and 15 extraordinary professors, 38 prirat-docents, and nearly 2.500 students. The polytechnic school there has about 50 teachers. Since 1672 there is also a university in Klausenbu•g. There are theological seminaries for all the various confessions, and of late great efforts, not without good result, have been made to raise the educational status of the country; insomuch that the annual expenditure on educa tion rose from 981,000 florins in 1868 to 2,764, 000 florins in 1872. In 1871 and 1872 there were 900 new schools opened, and 1002 new school-houses erected. Besides 14,000 primary schools, there are now in Hungary and Transylvania about 180 gym nasia; and academies, learned societies, and associations for the promotion of Hun garian literature exist. Newspapers and periodicals to the number of 205 appear regularly; of these more than half are Magyar, about 30 are Slavic, one-fourth are German, and two or three Rumanian.