ANAM, or ANNAM, a French pro tectorate comprising the central part of French Indo-China. Its area is 52,100 square miles.
Topography.—Anam is mountainous on the N. but in the E. is nearly level, terminating toward the sea in an allu vial plain yielding good crops of rice, cotton, fruits, ginger, and spices, and a great variety of varnish trees, palms, etc. The principal river is the Mekong, which has numerous tributaries, many of them being joined together by canals, both for irrigation and commerce. Agri culture is the chief occupation, but many of the inhabitants are engaged in the spinning and weaving of cotton and silk into coarse fabrics, the preparation of varnish, iron smelting, and the construc tion of ships or junks. The chief prod ucts of the country- are cotton, rice maize, and other cereals. Tobacco, sugar, manioc, and bamboo are also extensively produced. The production of raw silk forms an important industry, and about 800,000 kilograms are produced annually. Copper, iron, zinc, and gold exist in va rious parts of the country. The imports in 1918 amounted to 5,067,518 francs, and the exports to 8,705,679 francs. The lead ing exports are cotton yarn, cotton, tea, petroleum, paper goods, and tobacco. The chief imports are sugar, rice, cinnamon, tea, and paper. Pop. about 5,200,000.
People.—The inhabitants are said to be the ugliest of the Mongoloid races of the peninsula, being under the middle size and less robust than the surrounding peoples. Their language is monosyllabic, and is connected with the Chinese. The religion of the majority is Buddhism, but the educated classes hold the doc trines of Confucius; besides which there are 420,000 Roman Catholics. The capi tal is Hue.
History.—Anam was conquered by the Chinese in 214 B. c., but in 1428 A. D. it completely won its independence. The French began to interfere actively in its affairs in 1847 on the plea of protecting the native Christians. By the treaties of 1862 and 1867 they obtained the south ern and most productive part of Cochin China, subsequently known as French Cochin-China; and in 1874 they obtained large powers over Tonquin, notwith standing the protests of the Chinese. Finally, in 1883, Tonquin was ceded to France, and next year Anam was de clared a French protectorate. After a short period of hostilities with China the latter recognized the French claims, and Tonquin is now directly administered by France, while Anam is entirely under French direction.