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Collier's New Encyclopedia, Volume 4

Alexander Hamil To N
Hamil To N, Alexander, An American Statesman; Born In Nevis, W. I., Jan. 11, 1757. In 1772 He Was Sent To Elizabethtown, N. J., To A Grammar School, And In 1773 Entered King's Col Lege (now Columbia University). When The Revolution Broke Out He Was Ap Pointed (1776) Captain Of ...

Armand Fallieres
Fallieres, Armand, 8th Presi Dent -of The French Republic. He Was Born At Mezin, Lot-et-garonne, In 1841, And After His Preliminary Education Took Up The Study Of Law. His First Promi Nent Public Position Was As Mayor Of Nerac, Following On Which He Was In 1876 Elected As Member Of ...

Arnold Hague
Hague, Arnold, An American Geologist; Born In Boston, Mass., Dec. 3, 1840; Was Graduated At The Sheffield Scientific School Of Yale College In 1863 And Then Studied Abroad. Returning To The United States He Spent About 10 Years In The West Investigating The Comstock Lode. In 1877 The Government Of ...

Battle Of Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands, Battle Of, A Naval Engagement Fought Dec. 8, 1914, Between A British Squadron Led By Rear Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee And The German Far East Squadron Under Ad Miral Von Spee. On Nov. 1 Of The Same Year The German Squadron Had Met The In Number, And There ...

Battle Of Gettysburg
Gettysburg, Battle Of, A Battle Fought July 1-3, 1863, Between The Union Army Under General Meade, And The Confederates Under General Lee. During May The Armies Lay Fronting Each Other Upon The Rappahannock. Early In June Lee Began His Movement For The Invasion Of Pennsylvania, Cross Ing The Potomac On ...

Benjamin Franklin
Franklin, Benjamin, An Ameri Can Statesman; Born In Boston, Mass., Jan. 17, 1706. When 12 Years Old He Was Apprenticed To His Brother James To Learn The Printer's Trade. Three Years Later James Started A Newspaper Called The "new England Courant." Benjamin Tried His Hand As A Contributor To The ...

Bertrand Du Guesclin
Guesclin, Bertrand Du (ga Klan'), Constable Of France; Born Near Dinan In The District Of Rennes, About Either 1314 Or 1320. From His Boyhood Upward He Excelled In All Martial Exer Cises. In The Contests Between Charles Do Blois And Jean De Montfort For The Dukedom Of Brittany He Took ...

Book Of Ezra
Ezra, Book Of, An Old Testament Book. The Name Ezra Is By Most Persons Held To Denote That He Was The Author Of The Book. It May, However, Signify No More Than That The Doings Of Ezra Are The Main Theme Of The Book, Which Is Certainly The Case. The ...

Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahneman
Hahneman N, Christian Friedrich Samuel (ha'ne-man), The Founder Of Homeopathy (q. V.); Born In Meissen, Saxony, April 10, 1755. He Entered The University Of Leipsic At The Age Of 20; From Leipsic He Proceeded To Vienna For Clinical Study; He Then Passed Two Years As Physician And Librarian To A ...

Church Of England
England, Church Of, The Official Name Of That Body Of Christians Who Have A Formal Head In The Person Of The Hereditary Ruler Of England. This Des Ignation Is Used In Two Senses: First, A General One Signifying The Church Re Garded As Continuous, Which, From The First Triumph Of ...

Code Of Hammurapi
Hammurapi, Code Of, The Re Corded Collection Of The Body Of Rules Governing The Procedure Of Courts, The Administration Of Justice, The Positive And Negative Rules Of Conduct Ordered To Be Observed In The Daily Social And Com Mercial Life Of Babylon In The 22d Century B. C. The Code ...

Crushing And Pul Verizing
Grinding, Crushing And Pul Verizing Machinery. The Proc Ess Of Reducing Solids From Large Frag Ments To Small Particles May Be Accom Plished By Various Means Which May Be Classified As Under: (1) Breaking, As When A Stone Is Broken By A Sledge-hammer. (2) Crushing, Exemplified By The Crushing Of ...

David Glascoe Farragut
Farragut, David Glascoe, An American Naval Officer; Born In Camp Bell's Station, Tenn., July 5, 1801. He Was Appointed, Without Previous Train Ing, A Midshipman As Early As 1810. Under Commodore Porter He Was En Gaged In The "essex" In Her Cruise Against The British In 1812-1814, And After Her ...

Douglas Haig
Haig, Douglas, 1st Earl, British Commander-in-chief In The World War. He Was Born In 1861, And Was Educated At Clifton And Brasenose College, Oxford. In 1885, He Joined The 7th Hussars And Served In The Soudan In 1898, Distin Guishing Himself At Atbara And Khar Toum, Being Mentioned In Despatches, ...

Edward Grey
Grey, Edward, Viscount Of Falladon, A British Statesman, Born In Northumberland In 1862. He Re Ceived His Education At Winchester And At Balliol College, Oxford. His Political Career Began In 1885, When He Entered Parliament As The Member For Berwick On-tweed, Which Constituency He Con Tinued To Represent Thereafter As ...

Elbert Henry Gary
Gary, Elbert Henry, An Amer Ican Lawyer And Capitalist, Born Near Wheaton, Ill. He Was Educated In The Public Schools And Wheaton College, And At The University Of Chicago. After Studying Law At The Latter Institution, He Was Admitted To The Bar In 1867. He Was Engaged In The General ...

Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation, A Proclamation Providing For The Eman Cipation Of The Slaves In Certain Parts Of The Confederate States, Issued As A War Measure By President Lincoln, Jan. 1, 1863. The Number Of Slaves Emancipated By This Proclamation Was, Taking The Census Of 1860 As A Basis, As Follows: Alabama ...

Embroidery
Embroidery, The Art Of Producing Ornamentation By Means Of Needlework On Textile Fabrics, Leather And Other Ma Terials. Embroidery Is Closely Allied To Lace-work, Which Is The Direct Develop Ment Of The Cut, Drawn, And Embroidered Linen Of The Classic And Early Christian Periods. Embroidery Pure And Simple Does Not ...

Employers Associations
Employers' Associations. With The Growth Of Labor Organizations It Is Only Natural That There Should Have Developed Associations Of Similar Na Ture And Aims Among Those To Whom The Labor Unions Are Opposed, The Em Ployers. Employers', Or Masters', As Sociations, Were Formed In Great Britain As Far Back As ...

Enemy
Enemy, One Who Is Unfriendly Or Hostile To Another; One Who Hates Or Dis Likes; A Hostile Army Or Force; The Great Adversary Of Mankind, The Devil. According To Ancient Military Usage, The Utmost Cruelty Was Lawful Toward Enemies. In Modern Times More Humane Principles Prevail, And Men Recognize That, ...

Engineering
Engineering, The Branch Of Science Dealing With The Design, Construction And Operation Of Various Machines, Struc Tures, And Engines Used In The Arts, Trades, And Everyday Life. Engineering Is Divided Into Many Branches, The Most Important Being Civil, Mechanical, Elec Trical, Mining, Military, Marine, And San Itary Engineering. Civil Engineering ...

England
England, Including Wales, The S. And Larger Portion Of The Island Of Great Britain, Is Situated Between 50° And 55° 46' N. Lat., And 1° 46' E. And 5° 42' W. Ion. On The N. It Is Bounded By Scotland; On All Other Sides It Is Washed By The Sea; ...

English Language
English Language, A Member Of The Teutonic Family Of Languages, Which Form Three Groups: (1) Low German. (2) Scandinavian, And (3) High Ger Man. The English Language Belongs To The First Of These Groups. The Teutonic Languages Themselves Form A Subdivision Of The European Division Of That Great Family Of ...

English Literature
English Literature, The Mass Of Expression In Written Prose And Poetry, Of The Mind Of The English-speak Ing Peoples, Through The Medium Of The English Language. Before Any English Literature, In The Strict Sense Of The Term, Existed, Four Literatures Had Arisen In England—the Celtic, Latin, Anglo-saxon, And Anglo Norman. ...

Engraving
Engraving, The Art Of Cutting Or Incising Designs On Metal Plates Or Blocks Of Wood, For The Purpose Of Print Ing Impressions From Them With Ink On Paper, Or Other Similar Substance. Works Of This Sort Belong To Two Classes: En Gravings On Metal, In Which The Lines To Be ...

Entomology
Entomology, The Branch Of Zoology Which Treats Of Insects. Insects Have Jointed Bodies And Limbs, An Enveloping Cuticle Of Chitin, A Ventral Chain Of Gan Glia, A Dorsal Brain, And Breathe By Air Tubes Or Trachea. Contrasted With Peri Patus And Myriopods, They Have Made Two Great Steps Of Progress; ...

Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth
Ellsworth, Ephraim Elmer, An American Military Officer; Born In Mechanicsville, N. Y., April 23, 1837. He Removed To Chicago Before He Was Of Age, And Studied Law. He Organized About 1859 A Zouave Corps Which Became Noted For The Excellence Of Its Discipline. In March, 1861, He Accompanied President Lincoln ...

Epileptic Colonies
Epileptic Colonies, Establish Ments Modeled On Farms In Which Epilep Tics Inhabit Houses Surrounded By Open Spaces Such As Gardens And Meadows, And Supplemented By Factories, Schools, Theaters, And Churches; Giving The Pa Tients Occupation And A Diversion, And The Opportunity Of A Life Spent Largely In The Open. The ...

Equation
Equation, A Term Based On The Idea Of Equality. Algebra.—two Algebraic Expressions Which Are Equal To One Another, And Are Connected By The Sign—. Thus 6x-13= Ami +19. Is An Equation; And, Since The Equality Of The Members Depends On The Value Assigned To X, It Is Called An Equation ...

Equator
Equator, An Imaginary Great Circle Of The Celestial Vault Or On The Surface Of The Earth. In Astronomy.—a Great Circle Of The Celestial Vault At Right Angles To Its Axis, And Dividing It Into A Northern And Southern Hemisphere. It Is Constituted By The Plane Of The Earth's Equator, Pro ...

Eric
Eric, The Name Of Several Danish And Swedish Kings. Eric Vii., King Of Denmark; Born In 1382, The Son Of Duke Wratislaw Of Pomerania, Was Selected As Her Successor By Queen Margaret Of Den Mark, And In 1412 Mounted The Throne Of Denmark, Norway, And Sweden, United By The Treaty ...

Erie
Erie, City, Port Of Entry, And County Seat Of Erie Co., Pa., On Lake Erie, And On The Lake Shore, The Pennsylvania, The Erie, And Several Other Railroads; 85 Miles S. W. Of Buffalo; 100 Miles N. E. Of Cleveland. Erie Is On A Bluff, Having A Grand View Of ...

Eskimo
Eskimo, The Name Of The Inhabit Ants Of The N. Coast Of The American Continent Down To Lat. 60° N. On The W., And 55° On The E., And Of The Arctic Islands, Greenland, And About 400 Miles Of The Nearest Asiatic Coast. They Prefer The Vicinity Of The Seashore. ...

Estaing
Estaing (es-tan') , Charles Hec Tor, Comte D', A French Army And Navy Officer; Born In 1729. He Entered The French Army As Colonel Of Infantry; Was Promoted Brigadier-general In 1757; Ac Companied The Expedition Of Comte De Lally To The East Indies, And Was Cap Tured At The Siege ...

Estate
Estate, A Term Ordinarily Applied To Designate Landed Property. The Applica Tion Has Its Origin In The Feudal System, Under Which Land Was Not Conceived As Being Capable Of Absolute Ownership But As The Property Of The Crown, Of Which Subjects Were The Tenants. The Interest Of A Particular Tenant ...

Ethics
Ethics, That Branch Of Moral Philos Osophy Which Is Concerned With Human Character And Conduct. It Deals With Man As A Source Of Action And Is Closely Related To Psychology And Sociology. It Seeks To Determine The Principles By Which Conduct Is To Be Regulated, Having To Do Not Merely ...

Ethnology
Ethnology, The Science Which Treats Of Various Races Of Mankind And Their Origin. With Anthropology, Phi Lology, Psychology, And Sociology It Helps To Cover The Complete Study Of Man. Ethnologists Rely, In Their Different Schemes Of Classification, On What Are Called Ethnical Criteria. These Criteria Are Partly Internal, The Skeleton ...

Etruria
Etruria, The Name Anciently Given To That Part Of Italy Which Corresponded Partly With The Modern Tuscany, And Was Bounded By The Mediterranean, The Apennines, The River Magra, And The Tiber. The Name Of Tusci Or Etrusci Was Used By The Romans To Designate The Race Of People Anciently Inhabiting ...

Etymology
Etymology, A Term Applied To That Part Of Grammar Which Treats Of The Various Inflections And Modifications Of Words And Shows How They Are Formed From Simple Roots; And To That Branch Of Philology Which Traces The History Of Words From Their Origin To Their Latest Form And Meaning. Etymology ...

Eucher
Eucher (fi'ker), The Most Generally Played Parlor Game After Whist In The United States. The Pack Of Cards Con Sists Of 32, Being An Ordinary "deck," Minus The Deuce, Trey, Four, Five, And Six Spots Of Each Suit. The Game Is Usu Ally Played By Two, Three, Or Four Per ...

Eugene Or Francoiseugene
Eugene Or Francois Eugene, Prince Of Savoy, Fifth Son Of Eugene Maurice, Duke Of Savoy-cari Gnan, And Olympia Mancini, A Niece Of Cardinal Mazarin; Born In Paris, Oct. 18, 1663. Offended With Louis Xiv. He Entered The Austrian Service In 1683, Serving His First Campaign As A Volunteer Against The ...

Eugenics
Eugenics, A Term Introduced By Francis Galton In 1883 And Defined By Him As Follows: "eugenics Is The Study Of Agencies Under Social Control Which May Improve Or Impair The Racial Qual Ities Of Future Generations Either Physi Cally Or Mentally." It Is Based Upon Genetics Or The Study Of ...

Europe
Europe. The Smallest Of The Great Continents, But The Most Important In The History Of Civilization For The Last 2,000 Years. It Forms A Huge Peninsula Pro Jecting From Asia, And Is Bounded On The N. By The Arctic Ocean; On The W. By The Atlantic Ocean; On The S. ...

Evening Schools
Evening Schools, Schools Which Endeavor To Educate Those Who For Vari Ous Reasons Cannot Attend Schools Con Ducted In The Daytime. For The Most Part They Are Attended By People Who Earn Their Livelihood By Working Through The Day And Who Desire To Better Their Positions. They Provide Instruction In ...

Evidence
Evidence, That Which Makes Evi Dent, Which Enables The Mind To See Truth. It May Be Intuitive, I. E., Resting On The Direct Testimony Of Consciousness, Of Per Ception Or Memory, Or On Fundamental Principles Of The Human Intellect; Or It May Be Demonstrative, I. E., In A Strict Sense, ...

Evidences Of Christianity
Evidences Of Christianity May Be Divided Broadly Into Two Great Classes, Viz., External Evidences, Or The Body Of Historical Testimonies To The Christian Revelation; And Internal Evi Dences, Or Arguments Drawn From The Nature Of Christianity Itself As Exhibited In Its Teachings And Effects, In Favor Of Its Divine Origin. ...

Evolution
Evolution, The Act Of Unrolling Or Unfolding. The Word Is Used As A Term In Science And Philosophy To Indicate The Development Of An Organism Toward Greater Differentiation Of Organs And Functions, And A More Complex And High Er State Of Being. Some Regard Herbert Spencer (q. V) As The ...

Excavator
Excavator, An Apparatus Used In Making Docks, Railway Cuttings, Canals, Etc. Excavators Are Made Of Two Kinds, Each Adapted For Different Kinds Of Work, Though In Some Cases They Work To Gether Very Effectively. In Making A Long "gullet" Or Cutting, The First To Come Into Operation Has The Appearance ...

Exchange
Exchange, The Act Of Exchanging, Or Giving One Thing For Another; Or That Which Is So Given. In Commerce, A Place Where Merchants, Brokers, Etc., Meet To Transact Business; Generally Contracted Into 'change. The Institution Of Ex Changes Dates From The 16th Century. They Originated In The Important Trading Cities ...

Excommunication
Excommunication, A Word De Noting Exclusion, Whether Temporary Or Permanent, From Fellowship In Religious Rites, Involving Also, Where Participation In Such Rites Is Required In The Civil Order, Privation Of The Rights Of Citizenship. It Is Not Peculiar To The Biblical Religions, But Is Found In Most Of The Sytematized ...

Expatriation
Expatriation, The Act Or State Of Banishment From One's Native Country; Also The Voluntary Renunciation Of The Rights And Liabilities Of Citizenship In One Country To Become The Citizen Or Subject Of Another. In The Early Part Of The 19th Century, The United States Was Almost The Only Nation That ...

Explosives
Explosives Are Substances Which, By Sudden Decomposition Or Chemical Ac Tion, Produce Large Volumes Of Heated Gas. The Decomposition Can Be Brought About By Heat, By A Blow Or By Other Means. All Explosives In Actual Use Are Those In Which The Chemical Action Is One Of Oxidation, The Oxygen ...

Factory Inspection
Factory Inspection, The Need Of Special Factory Legislation Was First Brought About By The Fact That Machin Ery, By Reducing The Need Of Labor, And Throwing An Increasing Number Of Work. Ers Out Of Employment, Created Compe Tition Among The Workers Themselves (see Factories And Factory System). This Created A ...

Fairy
Fairy, A Fay; An Imaginary Being Or Spirit, Supposed To Assume A Human Form, Dance In Meadows, Steal Infants, And Play A Variety Of Pranks; An En Chantress. In The Traditional Mythology Of The Nations Of Western Europe, Fairies (the Elves Of The Anglo-saxons) Were Generally Believed To Be A ...

Fall River
Fall River, A City And Port Of Entry Of Bristol Co., Mass., At The Mouth Of The Taunton River, Where It Empties Into Mount Hope Bay, And On The New York, New Haven And Hartford Rail Road; 49 Miles S. Of Boston. It Is Con Nected With New York City ...

Famine
Famine, A Scarcity Of Food Over Large Areas, Resulting In Suffering Or Death By Starvation And Disease To Mul Titudes. Short Crops Are Caused By Drought, Excess Of Rainfall, Severe And Untimely Frosts, The Ravages Of Insects And Vermin, The Devastation Of War, Wholesale Destruction Of Forests, Dis Eases Of ...

Far Eastern Question
Far Eastern Question, That Problem Of International Politics Which Has To Do With The Maintenance Of The Equilibrium Of The Various National Spheres Of Influence In The Far East, Especially In China. China, And Formerly Japan, Have Been Nations Whose Com Mercial Importance Has Been Out Of All Proportion To ...

Farm Management
Farm Management, The Problem Of Economics In Agricultural Production, With The Object Of Introducing Therein The Same Business Efficiency Which Has Brought American Manufacturing To Its Present High Degree Of Perfection. While The Basis Of Manufacturing Industry Has Been Radically Changed By The Use Of Ma Chinery And Factory Organization, ...

Fast
Fast, Total Or Partial Abstinence From Or Deprivation Of Food; An Omission To Take Food. Also A Time Set Apart To Ex Press National Grief For Some Calamity, Or To Deprecate An Impending Evil. Ethnic Fasts.—the Old Egyptians, The Assyrians (jonah Iii : 5), The Greeks, Romans, And Other Ancient ...

Fasting
Fasting, In Ordinary Language, The Act Or State Of Abstaining Partially Or Entirely From Food. In Medicine, Loss Of Appetite Without Any Other Apparent Of Fection Of The Stomach; So That The Sys Tern Can Sustain Almost Total Abstinence For A Long Time Without Fainting. For A Number Of Years ...

Federalist
Federalist, The Name Of An Early Political Party In The United States. After The Acknowledgment Of The Inde Pendence Of The 13 Colonies By The Mother Country, The First Task That Confronted The Successful Revolutionists Was The Erection Of A Government And The Formu Lation Of A Constitution. When The ...

Fehmgerichte Femgerichte
Femgerichte, Fehmgerichte, Or Vehmgerichte The Name Of Celebrated Secret Tribunals Which Existed In Westphalia, And Pos Sessed Immense Power And Influence In The 14th And 15th Centuries. They Are Said By Some To Have Been Originated By Charlemagne. The Femgerichte First Came Into Notice After The Deposition And Outlawry Of ...

Feminism
Feminism, A Term, Supposed To Have Originated In France In 1890, Which In Cludes All Phases Of The Modern Tendency Of Women To Assert Their Equality In The Social Life With Men; Their Right To Enter The Professions On An Equal Basis With Men, Equal Suffrage For Both Sexes In ...

Fencing
Fencing, The Art Of Using Skillfully, In Attack Or Self-defense, A Sword, Rapier, Or Bayonet; But Usually Taken To Mean Address In The Use Of The Second Of These Weapons. In The School Of Fence, The Foil Is Wielded. The Foil Is A Circular Or Quadrangular Rod Or Blade Of ...

Fenians
Fenians, An Irish Secret Society Np Med From An Ancient Military Organi Zation Of Ireland That Became Extinct In The 3d Century. The Fenian Society Was Formed In The United States Probably In March, 1858, By The Refugees Who Crossed The Atlantic After The Unsuccess Ful Outbreak Of 1848, And ...

Ferdinand Foch
Foch, Ferdinand, French General And Supreme Commander Of The Allied Forces Operating Against The Germans On The Western Front, In Belgium And France During The World War. He Was Born In Tarbes, 1851, The Son Of A Minor Departmental Official Under Napo Leon Iii. Together With His Two Brothers He ...

Ferdinand I
Ferdinand I, Former King Of Bul Garia. He Was Born In Vienna, In 1861, The Youngest Son Of Prince Augustus Of Saxe-coburg And Princess Clementine Of Bourbon-orleans, Who Was The Daughter Of Louis Philippe. He Was Educated In The Schools Of Germany And Developed A Marked Taste For Natural History. ...

Ferdinand V
Ferdinand V., Called The Catholic, Son Of John Ii., King Of Navarre And Aragon; Born In Soz, Spain, March 10, 1452. He Married, In 1469, The Princess Isabella Of Castile, In Whose Right He Succeeded On The Death Of Her Brother, Henry Iv., To The Throne Of Castile. A Rival ...

Fermentation
Fermentation, A Change Which Oc Curs In An Organic Substance, By Which It Is Decomposed. Alcoholic Fermentation Was Known To The Ancients, And Is The Change Which Sugar Undergoes Under The Influence Of Yeast. Before Fermentation Takes Place, Cane Sugar Is Transformed Into Glucose, Thus C=112...0ii-1-1120=2c.h,20.. About 95 Per Cent. ...

Feudal System
Feudal System, That Constitu Tional System Which Was Introduced Into Europe By The N. Nations After The Fall Of The Roman Power, And Which Has Left Important Traces Of Its Existence In Most European Countries. The Constitution Of Feuds Had Its Origin In The Military 1.1licy Of The Goths, Huns, ...

Fever
Fever, A Disease Or Rather A Whole Group Of Diseases, One General, Though Not Universal, Symptom Of Which Is In Creased Heat Of The Skin, Besides Which The Pulse Is Frequent, And Various Func Tions Are Disturbed. Fevers May Be Di Vided Into Continued, Periodic, And Erup Tive Or Exanthematous. ...

Finger Prints
Finger Prints. The Individual Distinctiveness That Attaches To The Pap Illary Ridges On The Palms Of The Hand, Their Unchanging Characteristic Through Life, And Their Broad Variations As Be Tween One Individual And Another, Are The Traits That Have Led To Their Study And Classification For Purposes Of Per Sonal ...

Fiord
Fiord, An Inlet Of The Sea, Generally Long, Narrow, And Deep; A Term Applied In Scandinavian Countries To Any Bay, Creek, Or Arm Of The Sea Which Extends Inland, And Sometimes Used To Express An Inland Lake Or Considerable Sheet Of Water; As, Sogne Fiord. The Fiords Of Iceland, Like ...

Fire Alarm
Fire Alarm, Elective Signaling Equipment Connected By Wire With A Central Office For The Purpose Of Notify Ing The Fire Department In Case Of Fire. The Instrument Is Usually Reduced To Its Simplest Dimensions So That People Not Familiar With The System May Operate It. Fire-alarm Boxes Contain Devices To ...

Fire Protection
Fire Protection. From The Very Earliest Times, Since Men First Began To Live Together In Communities, Organized Fire Protection Has Been A Function Of Local Government. So Far As Despatch And Efficiency Are Concerned, The Munic Ipal Fire Department Of Ancient Rome Was Little Behind The Fire Departments Of Modern ...

Fish
Fish, The Name Applied To A Class Of Animals Exclusively Aquatic, And Occupy Ing The Fourth And Lowest Station Of The Section Vertebrate,. The Head Is Large, And Set On The Body Without The Inter Vention Of Any Distinct Neck; The Body Is Usually Of A Spindle-shape, Tapering Gradually Toward ...

Fishery
Fishery, The Business Or Occupation Of Catching Fish. The Word Fishery Is Popularly Used In A Comprehensive Sense; Not Merely Is There A Herring Fishery, A Salmon Fishery, A Cod Fishery, A Pilchard Fishery, Etc., For Catching These Genuine Fishes, There Is A Whale Fishery For Har Pooning The Mammals ...

Flag
Flag, An Ensign Or Colors; A Piece Of Cloth, Either Plain Or Colored, And Hav Ing Certain Figures, Lines, Or Marks Painted Or Worked On It; A Banner Indi Cating Nationality, Occupation, Or Intelli Gence. Flags Of Nationality Are Stand Ards, Ensigns, Pennants (pendants), Jacks. Flags Of Occupation Indicate Serv ...

Flame
Flame, In Chemistry, A Shell Of In Candescent Matter Surrounding A Mass Of Combustible Vapor. To Produce Flame It Is Therefore Necessary That The Burning Body Should Be Capable Of Volatilization Just Below The Temperature At Which It Undergoes Combustion. Charcoal Or Iron Will Burn With A Steady Glow, More ...

Florence
Florence, A Famous City Of Central Italy; On Both Sides Of The Arno, 63 Miles S. By W. Of Bologna ; 68 E. N. E. Of Leg Horn, And 187 N.n.w. Of Rome. It Stands In A Richly Wooded, Well-cultivated, And Beautiful Valley, Encircled By The Apen Nines, And Is ...

Florida
Florida, A State In The South At Lantic Division Of The North American Union, Bounded By Alabama, Georgia, The Atlantic Ocean, Gulf Of Mexico, And The Straits Of Florida; Area, 58,680 Square Miles; Admitted As A State In 1845; Number Of Counties, 54. Pop. (1890) 391,422; (1900) 528,542; (1910) 751,139; ...

Flute
Flute, In Music, A Popular Instru Ment, The Use Of Which, Under Various Forms, May Be Traced To The Most Remote Ages. Of Its Origin No Direct Account Can Be Given. In Its Primitive State The Flute Was Played Like The Modern Flageolet, With A Mouth-piece At The Upper End; ...

Fluxion
Fluxion, In Medicine, An Unnatural Flow Or Determination Of Blood Or Other Humor Toward Any Organ; A Catarrh. In Mathematics, A Method Of Calcula Tion Resulting From The Operation Of Fluents, Or Flowing Numbers. Fly, In Zoology, A Name Applied Al Most Indiscriminately To All Insects Possessing Wings; Being Often ...

Focus
Focus, In Ordinary Language, Any Place From Which An Influence Emanates, Or Where That Influence Exists In Very Concentrated Form. In Optics, A Point At Which The Rays Of Light Refracted From A Convex Lens, Or Reflected From A Con Cave Mirror, Are Most Concentrated; A Point In Which Such ...