GIBRALTAR, a town and strongly fortified rocky peninsula near the S. ex tremity of Spain, belonging to Great Britain. It is connected with the main land by a low sandy isthmus, Ph miles long and 3a mile broad, known as the "neutral ground," with Gibraltar Bay on the W., the open sea on the E. and S. The highest point of the rock is about 1,400 feet above sea-level; its N. face is almost perpendicular, while its E. side exhibits tremendous precipices. On its S. side it is almost inaccessible, making approach from seaward impossible ; the W. side, again, although very rugged and precipitous, slopes toward the sea; and here the rock is secured by extensive and powerful batteries, rendering it ap parently impregnable. Vast sums of money and an immense amount of labor have been spent in fortifying this celeĽ brated stronghold.
' The town of Gibraltar is situated on the W. side of the peninsula, terminating in Europa Point, and thus fronts the bay. It consists chiefly of one spacious street about half a mile in length, lined with shops, and paved and lighted. The
principal buildings are the governor's and lieutenant-governor's houses, the ad miralty, naval hospital, etc. Its water supply is derived from the rainfall. Gi braltar is a free port, and has a con siderable shipping trade. The chief ex port is wine. The administration is vested in the governor, who is also commander-in-chief of the troops. Pop. (1919), 16,096. It was ultimately taken by the Spaniards from the Moors in 1462, fortified in the European style, and so much strengthened that the en gineers of the 17th century considered it impregnable. It was taken, however, after a vigorous bombardment in 1704 by a combined English and Dutch force under Sir George Rooke and Prince George of Darmstadt, and was secured to Great Britain by the peace of Utrecht in 1713. Since then it has remained in British hands, notwithstanding some harbor, two moles have been constructed, which respectively extend 1,100 and 700 feet into the bay. The Spanish town and port of Algeciras lie on its W. side.