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Collier's New Encyclopedia, Volume 4

Folklore
Folklore, The Science Which Em Braces All That Relates To Ancient Obser Vances And Customs, To The Notions, Be Liefs, Traditions, Superstitions, And Preju Dices Of The Common People. Gomme's Divisions Are: (1) Traditional Narra Tives: (a) Folk-tales, (b) Hero Tales, (c) Ballads And Songs, (d) Place Leg Ends; (2) ...

Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau (fonttain-ble), A Town Of France, Department Of Seine-et Marne, Near The Seine, In The Forest Of The Same Name, 32 Miles S. S. E. Of Paris, And 8 S. By E. Of Melun. Manu Factures Porcelain. Fontainebleau Owes Its Celebrity, And Indeed Origin, To Its Palace, Or Château, A ...

Food
Food, Any Substance Which, Taken Into The Body, Is Capable Of Sustaining Or Nourishing, Or Which Assists In Sustain Ing Or Nourishing The Living Being. Foods May Be Classed Under Three Heads, Gase Ous, Liquid, And Solid, The First Two Con Sisting Of The Air We Breathe—the Oxygen Of Which ...

Foot
Foot, That Part Of The Lower Extrem Ity Below The Leg On Which We Stand And Walk. It Is Composed Of Three Series Or Groups Of Bones—the Tarsal, Or Hinder Most; The Metatarsal, Which Occupy The Middle Portion; And The Phalanges, Which Form The Toes. The Tarsal Bones Are Seven ...

Football
Football, A Field Game Played In The United States, Great Britain, Canada, And Australia. The Game Is Said To Have Originated Among The Ro Mans, But It Was Under The Guidance Of The Public Schools Of Great Britain That It Advanced And Became Popular. There Are At The Present Time ...

Foraminifera
Foraminifera, An Order Of Ani Mals Belonging To The Sub-kingdom Pro Tozoa, And The Class Rhizopoda (q. V.). The Body Is Contained Within A Calcare Ous Test Or Shell, Which Is Polythalamous (many-chambered). It May Be Cylindrical Or Spiral, Or It May Tend To The Pyramidal Form. The Outer Surface ...

Force
Force, In Physics, An Influence Or Exertion Which, If Made To Act On A Body, Has A Tendency To Move It When At Rest, Or To Affect Or Stop Its Progress If It Be Already In Motion. The Strength Of Man's Arms Is A Force, So Is The Power Of ...

Forge
Forge, The Apparatus Or Works For Heating Bars Of Iron And Steel And Work Ing Them Under The Hammer. Works In Which Cast Iron From The Blast Furnaces Is Converted Into Malleable Iron By Puddling And Subsequent Hammering, And Also Where The Native Ores Of Iron Are Reduced Without Fusion ...

Formosa
Formosa (chinese Tai-wan, Or "terrace Bay"), An Island In The Chinese Sea, Belonging To Japan; About 80 Miles From The Chinese Coast, From Which It Is Separated By The Channel Of Foh-kien (sometimes Called Strait Of Formosa), And 170 Miles N. Of Luzon, The Chief Of The Philippine Islands; Length, ...

Formula
Formula, In Chemistry, An Ex Pression By Means Of Symbols, Especially Letters And Numbers, Of The Chemical Elements Contained In A Compound; In Medicine, A Prescription. In Mathemat Ics, A Formula Is The Expression Of A Gen Eral Rule Or Principle In Algebraic Sym Bols. For Example, The Equation— (a ...

Fort Worth
Fort Worth, A City Of Texas, The County-seat Of Tarrant Co. It Is On The Texas And Pacific, The International And Great Northern, The Chicago, Rock Island And Gulf, The Gulf, Colorado And Santa Fe, The Fort Worth And Denver City, The St. Louis And San Francisco, And Other Railroads. ...

Fortification
Fortification, The Art Of Increas Ing, By Engineering Devices, The Fighting Power Of Troops Who Occupy A Position. The Relation Of Fortification To The Other Great Divisions Of The Art Of Warfare, Strategy And Tactics, May Be Divided As Follows: Strategy Determines The Loca Tion Of The Position, Which Must ...

Fortress
Fortress, The Development Of Mod Ern Ordnance Has Rendered Fortification As Exhibited In The Construction Of The Fortresses Of The Past Practically Obsolete And Useless. It Is Probable That No For Tress In The World (with The Exception, Perhaps, Of Gibraltar) Would Form A Serious Obstacle To A Modern Naval ...

Forum
Forum, An Open Space In Roman Cities, Generally Surrounded By A Cov Ered Colonnade, That Fronted An Ambula Tory, And Buildings Of Various Kinds, Such As Temples, Courts Of Law, Prisons, Granaries, Etc. In The Later Period Of The Empire, When Rome Had Attained The Summit Of Its Glory, There ...

Fossil
Fossil, Originally, "all Bodies What Ever That Are Dug Out Of The Earth Are By Naturalists Commonly Called By The Gen Eral Name Of Fossils." At Present, Any Body, Or The Traces Of The Existence Of Any Body, Whether An Imal Or Vegetable, Which Has Been Buried In The Earth ...

Foundation
Foundation, Act Of Founding Or Fixing The Base; The Base Of An Ethfice; Original; Rise; Origin; That Part Of A Building Which Rests On The Ground; The Base Or Groundwork Of Anything; Estab Lishment. A Donation Or Legacy To Support An Institution; An Established Revenue, Particularly For A Charity; Endowment; ...

Fowl
Fowl, In Its General Sense, This Term Is Nearly Synonymous With Birds; But In A More Restricted Sense It Means Those Domestic Birds Brought Up In A Farmyard For The Table. Fowls Originally Came From Persia And India, And They Are Val Uable To The Breeder In Many Ways, Yield ...

France
France, A Republic Of S. W. Eu Rope; Bounded On The N. And N. E. By The North Sea, Strait Of Dover, English Channel, And Belgium; E. And S. E. By The Alps, Separating It From Italy, Switzerland, German Empire, And The Mediterranean; S. By The Mediterranean And The Pyrenees, ...

Francis Ferdinand
Francis Ferdinand, Austrian Archduke And Heir To The Throne, Whose Assassination Was The Pretext For The World War. He Was The Nephew Of The Emperor, Franz Joseph, And Was Born In Gratz, In 1863. His Father, The Arch Duke, Charles Louis, Having Renounced His Right To The Throne, After The ...

Francis I
Francis I., King Of France; Born In Cognac, France, Sept. 12, 1494; Suc Ceeded To The Throne In 1515, On The Death Of Louis Xii., Who Died Without Male Issue. Scarcely Had He Ascended, Than He, As Grandson Of Valentino Of Milan, Put Himself At The Head Of An Army ...

Francis Joseph I
Francis Joseph I., Emperor Of Austria And King Of Hungary. He Was Born On Aug. 18, 1830, At Laxenburg Castle, Near Vienna. His Father Was The Archduke Francis Charles, Younger Son Of Emperor Francis I., And His Mother Was The Archduchess Sofia. He Was Carefully Educated, And In 1848 Served ...

Franconia
Franconia, A Name Which Was Originally Applied To The German Coun Try On Both Sides Of The Main, Which Was Colonized By Frankish Settlers Under Thierry I., Eldest Son Of Clovis I., Who Succeeded To His Father's German Pos Sessions In 511. Conrad, Duke Or Count Of Franconia, Was Elected ...

Frankfort On The Main
Frankfort-on-the-main, A City Of Germany, The Capital Of A District Of Same Name, On The Main, 20 Miles Above Its Conflux With The Rhine. It Is Divided By The River Into Two Unequal Parts; The One On The N. Bank, Called Frankfort Proper, Being Considerably Larger Than The Other, Which ...

Fraternities
Fraternities. A Voluntary As Sociation Of Men For Promoting Their Common Interest, Business Or Pleasure. In This Wide Sense It Includes All Secret And Benevolent Societies, The Monastic And Sacerdotal Congregations, The Orders Of Knighthood, And Also Guilds, Trades Unions, And The Like. In A Limited Sense It Is Applied ...

Frederick Funston
Funston, Frederick, An Ameri Can Military Officer; Born In Ohio, Nov. 9, 1865; Was Educated At The Kansas State University; Engaged In Newspaper Work In Kansas City In 1890; Was Special Agent Of The Agricultural Department To Investigate The Flora Of Alaska In 1893 1894; Enlisted For Service With The ...

Frederick I
Frederick I., Surnamed Barba Rossa, Emperor Of The Holy Roman Em Pire, Son Of Frederick, Duke Of Suabia; Born In 1121, And Was Chosen To Suc Ceed His Uncle Conrad Iii. In 1152. He Had Accompanied Conrad To Palestine Five Years Previously, And His Great Quali Ties Had Already Appeared. ...

Frederick Ii
Frederick Ii., Emperor Of The Holy Roman Empire, Son Of Henry Vi. And Constance, Of Sicily; Born In Jesi, Dec. 26, 1194, Elected King Of The Romans In 1196, Again After His Father's Death, And A Third Time On The Excommunica Tion Of Otho Iv., In 1211. He Was Al ...

Frederick Ii_2
Frederick Ii., Commonly Called Fred Erick The Great; Born In Berlin, Jan. 24, 1712, And Began To Reign In 1740, Found Himself In Possession Of A Full Treasury And A Powerful Army, Which Be Soon Em Ployed In Attacking Austria, And Con Quering From Her The Province Of Silesia (1740-1742). ...

Frederick William Iv
Frederick William Iv., King Of Prussia, Son Of The Preceding; Born Oct. 15, 1795; On The Death Of His Father, Suc Ceeded To The Throne In 1840. He Served As A Simple Officer, In The Campaigns Of 1813 And 1814, And Evinced, At An Early Period Of His Life, A ...

Free Trade
Free Trade, The Term Applied To National Commerce When Relieved From Such Interference As Is Intended To Im Prove Or Otherwise Influence It; That Is, Unrestricted By Laws Or Tariffs, And Not Unduly Stimulated By Bounties. In All Countries It Was Long Held To Be Of Im Portance To Encourage ...

Freight
Freight, Formerly A Charge Paid To The Owner Of A Ship For The Carriage Of Goods. But This Term Now Extends To Transportation By Land, Especially By Rail Roads. In Maritime Freight The Person Chartering A Ship Pays Freight For Goods Sent By It, And Dead Freight For Any De ...

French Establishments In India
French Establishments In India. Territories In India Which Still Belong To France. They Are Very Small, Their Total Extent Being But 197 Square Miles, With An Estimated Population Of 270,000. They Are The French Colonies Of Chandernagore, Pondicherry, Kari Kal, Malic, And Yanaon. The Imports Before The World War Were ...

French Revolution
French Revolution. Although There Have Been Not A Few Revolutions In France The Name Is Always Given To That Extraordinary Series Of Events Which Occurred Between The Summoning Of The Estates-general In 1788 And The Assumption Of Power By Napoleon In 1799. The Estates-general Which Met At Versailles On May ...

Fronde
Fronde, The Name Of A Political Faction Which Played A Conspicuous Part In French History During The Minority Of Louis Xiv., And Which Gave Rise To The Celebrated Insurrectionary Movement Known Historically As The War Of The Fronde. The Members Of This Party Ob Tained The Derisive Name Of Frondeurs ...

Fruit
Fruit, In Botany, A Term Applied To The Ripened Ovary And Its Contents, Quite Regardless Of Their Being Eatable Or Otherwise. In Many Instances, There Are Additions To The Ovary In The Form Of The Remains Of Some Or All Of The Other Parts Of The Flower. In The Strawberry, ...

Fuel
Fuel, Any Combustible Substance Which Is Used For The Production Of Heat. In This Extended Sense Of The Term, Alco Hol, Wax, Tallow, Coal-gas, Oil, And Other Inflammable Bodies Which Are Occasionally Used, Especially In The Chemical Labora Tory, As Sources Of Heat As Well As Light, Might Be Included ...

Fulminate
Fulminate, In Chemistry, A Salt Of Fulminic Acid. Fulminate Of Mercury Is Prepared By Dissolving 1 Part Of Mercury In 12 Parts Of Nitric Acid; The Solution Is Mixed With An Equal Volume Of Alcohol When Cold. The Mixture Is Then Gently Heated On A Water Bath. Red Vapors Are ...

Furs
Furs. Under The Name Of Furs May Be Included The Skins Of Almost All Those Animals Which, For The Sake Of Protec Tion Against Cold, Have For A Covering An Under Layer Of A Soft, Woolly, Or Downy Texture, Through Which Grows In Most Instances An Upper One Of A ...

Future Life
Future Life, A Life To Succeed This One; A Life Beyond The Tomb. Ethnic Faiths.—the Belief In A Future Life Is Very Widely Spread. In Its Early Form No Distinction Is Drawn Between The Souls Of Men And Brutes; For Both Another State Of Existence Is Reserved. In The Lowest ...

Gaelic League
Gaelic League. An Organization Having For Its Object The Preservation, Cultivation And Extension Of The Irish Language And Irish Literature, And The Reorganization Of Life In Ireland On The Basis Of The Old Irish Civilization. The Norman French Who Entered Ireland From England From 1169 Onward Speedily Fell Into Irish ...

Galena
Galena, A City And County-seat Of Jo Daviess Co., Ill.; On The Galena River, Near Its Junction With The Mississippi, And On The Illinois Central, The Chicago And Northwestern, And The Burlington And Chicago Great Western Railroads; 165 Miles W. Of Chicago. It Has Steamer Connections With All Important River ...

Galicia
Galicia, A Former Province Of Aus Tria, Now A Part Of The Republic Of Poland, Bounded By Russia„ Bukowina, Hungary, And Moravia ; Area, 30,307 Square Miles; Pop., Polish In The W., Russniak In The E. The Great Physical Features Of The Country Are, In A Man Ner Determined By ...

Galileo Galilei
Galilei, Galileo Commonly Called Galileo (gal-i-le'o), A Distinguished Italian Physicist; Born In Pisa, Italy, Feb. 18, 1564. His Father, Vincenzo Galilei, A Nobleman Of Florence, Intended Him For The Medical Profession; But His Love Of Mathematical Studies Was So Decided That He Was Allowed To Pur Sue Them. At The ...

Gallas
Gallas, A Race Of People Inhabiting That Part Of Africa Which Lies To The S. And W. Of Harar And S. Of Shoa, Between Lat. 9° And 3° S. And Ion. 34° And 44° E. The Best Authorities Regard Them As Be Longing To The Ethiopic Branch Of The Hamites, ...

Gallican Church
Gallican Church, The Distinctive Title Of The Roman Catholic Church In France. It Is The Church Of France, Considered Less In Relation To Geographi Cal Boundaries Than In Its Constitution And Principles Of Church Government The Christian Faith Was Widely Diffused In France Or Gaul, Even During The Life Time ...

Gallium
Gallium, A Metallic Element, Symbol Ga, Atomic Weight 69.9. Gallium Is A Triad Element. Specific Heat 0.079. It Was Discovered By A French Chemist, Lecoq De Boisbaudram, In Zinc Blonde. The Metal Is Obtained By Dissolving The Blonde In Sulphuric Acid And Placing In The Solution Plates Of Zinc Till ...

Game
Game, Any Contrivance, Arrangement, Or Institution Designed To Afford Recrea Tion, Sport Or Amusement; As, The Game Of Baseball, Or Of Football; In The Plural Contests In Different Sports, As Wrestling, Running, Etc. Public Games Of Antiquity.—the Pub Lic Games Of The Greeks Were Very Numerous, And The Origin Of ...

Ganges
Ganges (gan'jez), A River Of Hin Dustan, One Of The Greatest Rivers Of Asia, Rising In The Himalaya Mountains, In Garhwal State, And Formed By The Junction Of Two Head Streams, The Bhagirathi And The Alaknanda, Which Unite At Deoprag, 10 Miles Below Srina Gar, 1,500 Feet Above Sea-level. The ...

Garbage Disposal Of
Garbage. Disposal Of. The Question Of The Proper Disposal Of Gar Bage And Refuse Has Been One Of The Most Important Problems Of Municipal Life. In The United States, The Term Garbage Is Used To Designate Kitchen Waste Of Animal Or Vegetable Origin, Incident To The Preparation And Serving Of ...

Garfield James Abram
Garfield. James Abram, An Americar. Statesman, 20th President Of The United States ; Born In Orange, O., Nov. 19, 1831. The Family Home Was A Small Log Cabin In The Ohio "wilder Ness," A Region Now Known As The West Ern Reserve. He Went To School Winters, And Became An ...

Garrick David
Garrick. David. An English Actor; Born In Hereford, England, Feb. 20, 1716. His Grandfather Was A French Refugee, His Father A Captain In The Army. He Was Educated At Lichfield Grammar School, Spent A Short Time At Lisbon With An Uncle, And Returning To Lichfield Was Placed Under Samuel Johnson, ...

Gauls
Gauls, The Chief Branch Of The Great Original Stock Of Celts. Migrations Among The Gauls About 397 B. C., And Their Pas Sage Of The Alps, First Bring The Gallic Nation Into The Region Of History. Hav Ing Crossed The Alps They Fell On The Etruscans, Defeated The Romans At ...

Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen (gel'zen-ker Chen), A Modern Manufacturing Town Of Westphalia, 4 Miles N. W. Of Bochum. It Owes To Coal And Iron Its Rise From A Mere Village Since 1860. Pop. About 170,000. Gen, A Precious Stone. Gems Are Sometimes Found Crystallized In Regular Shapes And With A Natural Polish, More ...

Generator
Generator, An Apparatus For Gen Erating Carbonic Acid Gas For Charging Soda-fountains, Or Bottles With Aerated Water. In Chemistry, A Term Used To De Note The Elements Or Compounds From Which A More Complex Substance Is Ob Tained. Thus Ethyl, Alcohol, And Acetic Acid Are The Generators Of Acetic Ether; ...

Geneva
Geneva, A Town Of Switzerland; Capital Of The Canton Of The Same Name; At The W. Extremity Of The Lake Of Ge Neva, Where The Rhone Issues, Here Crossed By Several Bridges, And Dividing The Town Into Two Portions, The Larger And More Important Of Which Is On The Left ...

Genoa
Genoa (jen'o-a) (ancient Genua), A City Of Italy, Situated On The Gulf Of Genoa, At The Foot Of The Apennines, The Capital Of The Province And The Most Important Seaport; 801 Miles S. E. Of Paris. In A Nine-mile Circuit It Rises Like An Amphitheater Of Churches, Palaces And Houses. ...

Geography
Geography, A Delineation Or De Scription Of The Earth As It At Present Is, Leaving It To Geology To Investigate How It Came Into Its Present Condition. It May Be Divided Into Three Distinct Sciences, Mathematical Or Astronomical, Physical, And Political Geography. Ma Thematical Geography Views The Earth As A ...

Geology
Geology, The Science Which Investi Gates The Bygone History Of The Earth With The View Of Accounting For Its Pres Ent Condition. It Is The Province Of Physical And Political Geography To De Scribe What The Earth Now Is, Geology Attempts To Furnish The Reason Why. History.—though It Was Only ...

Geometry
Geometry (greek Geometria=the Measurement Of Land; Geo, For Geios=be Longing To The Earth, And Urement), Properly The Measurement Of The Earth Or Of Land, But Now Used Exclu Sively Of The Abstract Science To Which Practical Land Measurement Gave Or May Have Given Birth. It Is The Science Of Space, ...

George Fox
Fox, George, Founder Of The Society Of Friends; Born In Drayton In Leices Tershire, England, In July, 1624. His Father Was A Weaver, And By The Strict Honesty Of His Conduct Had Won From His Neighbors The Sobriquet Of "righteous Christer." George, While Yet A Boy, Was Distinguished By His ...

George Iii
George Iii., King Of England, Son Of Frederick Louis, Prince Of Wales; Born In London, June 4, 1738. He Suc Ceeded His Grandfather, George Ii., In 1760. In The Early Part Of His Reign He Gained Brilliant Successes Over France And Austria In The Seven Years' War, And In 1763 ...

George Leveson Gower Granville
Granville, George Leveson Gower, 2nd Earl, An English States Man; Born In London, May 11, 1815; Edu Cated At Eton And Oxford, And Entered Parliament In 1836 As Member For Mor Peth, Exchanging That Seat For Lichfield In 1840. He Succeeded To The Peerage In 1846, And Five Years Later ...

George V George Frederick
George V. (george Frederick Ernest Albert), King Of Great Britain And Ireland And Of The British Dominions Beyond The Seas, Emperor Of India. He Was Born In 1865. Following The Death Of His Elder Brother He Became Direct Heir To The Throne. His Choice As A Career Had Been With ...

George Washing Ton Goethals
Goethals, George Washing Ton, An American Engineer; Born At Brooklyn, N. Y., June 29, 1858; Received His Collegiate Training At The College Of The City Of New York, And Entered The United States Military Academy In 1876. Upon His Graduation In 1880, He Was Ap Pointed Second Lieutenant In The ...

Georgia
Georgia (by The Russians Called Grusia, By The Natives Karthli), For Merly A Kingdom, Then Included In The Russian Government Of Tiflis. The Na Tives Are A Fine-looking Race, The Geor Gian Women, Like The Circassians, Being Celebrated For Their Beauty. The Geor Gian Language, Together With That Of The ...

Georgia
Georgia, A State In The South At Lantic Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By North And South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, And The Atlantic Ocean; Area, 59,475 Square Miles; One Of The Original 13 States; Number Of Counties, 137. Pop. (1910) 2,609,121; (1920) 2,895,832. Capi Tal, Atlanta. Topography.—the ...

Germ Theory Of Disease
Germ Theory Of Disease, The Theory That Certain Diseases Are Com Municated From An Infected Person To An Uninfected One By Living Organisms Which Gain Access To The Body Of The Afflicted Person By The Air Or Food, Or Drink, And Which, Growing And Multiplying In The Body They Invade, ...

Germanicus
Germanicus C/esar, A Roman General, The Son Of Nero Claudius Drik Sus, And Of Antonia, Daughter Of Mark Antony And Niece Of Augustus; Born In 15 B. C. By Desire Of Augustus He Was Adopted In The Year 4 A. D. By Tiberius, Whom He Accompanied In The War Against ...

Gestation
Gestation, In Physiology, The Act Of Carrying Young In The Uterus From The Time Of Conception To That Of Parturi Tion. The Average Time Of A Woman's Pregnancy Is 9 Solar Months, Or About 280 Days, Though It May Be As Few As 7 Or As Many As 10. The ...

Ghazni
Ghazni (grz'ne Or Guz'ne), A Town Of Afghanistan, Below A Spur Of A Range Of Hills, At An Elevation Of 7,729 Feet, 84 Miles S. W. Of Kabul, On The Road To Kandahar And At The Head Of The Gomal Route To India. It Is A Place Of Consid Erable ...

Ghent
Ghent (french, Gand; Flemish, Gend Or Gent), A Town In Belgium, Capi Tal Of The Province Of East Flanders, At The Confluence Of The Lys With The Scheldt. It Is Upward Of 6 Miles In Cir Cumference, And Is Divided By Canals Into A Number Of Islands Connected With Each ...

Ghirlandajo
Ghirlandajo (ger-lan-da'yo), Il. Domenico Curradi, Nick-named Il Ghir Landajo ("the Garland-maker"), An Ital Ian Painter; Born In Florence, Italy, In 1449. As A Youth He Was Apprenticed To A Goldsmith, And It Was Not Until His 31st Year That He Became Known As A Painter. He Painted Principally Frescoes, And ...

Gibraltar
Gibraltar, A Town And Strongly Fortified Rocky Peninsula Near The S. Ex Tremity Of Spain, Belonging To Great Britain. It Is Connected With The Main Land By A Low Sandy Isthmus, Ph Miles Long And 3a Mile Broad, Known As The "neutral Ground," With Gibraltar Bay On The W., The ...

Girl Scouts Of America
Girl Scouts Of America. A National Organization Having For Its Ob Ject The General Welfare Of Girls, Giving Them Through Wholesome Pleasure Those Habits Of Mind And Body Which Will Make Them Useful, Responsible Women, Ready And Willing To Take A Definite Part In The Home, Civic, And National Affairs ...

Giuseppe Garibaldi
Garibaldi, Giuseppe Barde), An Italian Patriot; Born In Nice, France, July 4, 1807. His Father Being A Poor Fisherman, He Got Little Education, And For A Number Of Years Was A Sailor On Various Trading Vessels. In 1834, Being Condemned To Death For His Share In The Schemes Of Mazzini, ...

Gland
Gland, A Term At First Vaguely Ap Plied To Any Smooth, Round Viscus, But Which Is Now Limited To Such Of These As Secrete—i. E., Separate By A Process Of Cell Growth, Certain Constituents Of The Blood Which Are Afterward Poured Out From The Gland By Means Of A Duct. ...

Glass
Glass, A Hard, Brittle, Transparent Substance, Formed By Fusing Together Mixtures Of The Silicates Of Potash, Soda, Lime, Magnesia, Alumina, And Lead In Va Rious Proportions, According To The Qual Ity Or Kind Of Glass Required. Flint Glass Is Used In Making Table Ware And Many Articles Of Domestic Fur ...

Glove
Glove, An Article Of Dress; A Cover Ing For The Hand. Its Use Reaches Back To A Remote Antiquity, For We Are Told In The Odyssey That Laertes, The Farmer-king, Wore Gloves To Protect His Hands From The Thorns. Xenophon Also Sneers At The Per Sians For Wearing Gloves For ...

Gmund
Gmund, A City Of Wiirttemberg, Ger Many, Situated In The Valley Of The Rems, 32 Miles S. E. Of Stuttgart. It Was Famous Prior To The World War For Its Manufacture Of Jewelry And Ar Ticles Of The Precious Metals, And Was Also The Site Of Important Industries In Iron ...

Gnosticism
Gnosticism (nos'-), A System Of Philosophy Professedly Christian, Devised To Solve The Great Questions, Such As The Origin Of Evil, Which Have Perplexed The Ablest Minds In Every Age. Gnosticism Accepted Beliefs In An Eternal God Of In Finite Power, Wisdom, And Goodness. The Granting Of This Postulate At Once ...

Goat
Goat, Capra Hircus, The Domestic Goat, Which Exists, In A Wild Or Semi-wild State, In All The European Mountain Ranges. It Is Generally Supposed That It May Be A Descendant Of The Paseng Of Persia (c. Rgagrus). The Males Fight Furiously With Each Other In The Rutting Time. They Have ...

Gobonated
Gobonated, In Heraldry, An Epithet Applied To A Border, Pale, Bend, Or Other Charge Divided Into Equal Parts Forming Squares, Gobbets, Or Checkers. Called Also Gobone, Or Gobony. God, The Supreme Being. The Form God Is Used For Any Superior Or Imagin Ary Being, Constituting An Object Of Wor Ship; ...

Gold
Gold, A Triatomic Metallic Element, Symbol Au; Atomic Weight, 196; Specific Gravity, 19.26; Melting Point About 1240 ° C., Forming A Green Fluid Which Vol Atilizes At A Higher Temperature. Gold Is A Metal Of A Bright Yellow Color. It Is Very Ductile; A Grain Of It Can Be Drawn ...

Golf
Golf, A Game Of Ball, In Which The Bats Are Loaded Sticks With A Little Curve At The End For Striking The Ball On The Ground, Or Elevated On A Little Mound, Or Tee, As It Is Called In The Language Of The Game. Golf Clubs Are Of Varying Weights ...

Gorizia Or Goritz Or
Gorizia Or Goritz Or Gorz. A Town Which Figured Prominently In The World War, In The Former Austrian Crownland Of Gorz And Gradisca, Now An Italian Possession On The River Isonzo, Vacation. The Establishments Include Schools Of Various Kinds, Libraries, Hospi Tals, Seminaries And Experiment Stations. Its Manufactures Are Considerable, ...

Grain Elevator
Grain Elevator. A Structure De Signed For The Manipulation And Storage Of Grain Awaiting Transportation. It Is Usually A High Rectangular Or Cylindrical Edifice, Built Of Steel, Enforced Concrete, Or Some Other Suitable Material. The Bins Containing The Grain May Form With The Elevators And Machinery A Single Large Building ...

Gran Chaco
Gran Chaco (gran Ch51k6), An Ex Tensive Central Tract Of South America, Extending From The S. Tropic To 29° S. Lat., And Bounded On The E. By The Paraguay And Parana, And On The W. By The Ar Gentine Provinces Of Santiago Del Estero And Salta; Area, About 180,000 Square ...

Grand Army Of The
Grand Army Of The Republic, A Patriotic Organization In The United States Composed Of The National Veterans Of The Civil War. It Was Organized In Decatur, Ill., April 6, 1866, By Dr. B. F. Stephenson, Of Springfield, Formerly Sur Geon Of The 14th Illinois Infantry. The Establishment Of Post 1 ...

Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids, A City, Port Of Entry, And County-seat Of Kent Co., Mich.; On Both Sides Of The Grand River, And On The Pere Marquette, The Michi Gan Central, The Lake Shore And Michi Gan Southern, And Several Other Rail Roads; 60 Miles N. W. Of Lansing. There Is Direct ...

Great American Desert
Great American Desert, A Term Formerly Used To Designate The Arid Parts Of The West. It Is Now Used Only In Historical Reference. A Large Part Of The Region Which Formerly Bore This Designation Has Been Reclaimed Through The Construction Of Railroads, The Development Of Its Abundant Min Eral Resources, ...

Greece
Greece, A Kingdom Of Southeastern Europe; Bounded By Albania, Jugoslavia, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Black, Jegean, Ionian, And Mediterranean Seas; Cap Ital, Athens, With A Population Of About 300,000 (including Pirmus). Greece Gained Greatly In Territorial Area As A Result Of The Redistribution Of Territory At The Peace Conference In Paris. ...